In both species, the deep lateral cortex is marked by a transitio

In both species, the deep lateral cortex is marked by a transition

between the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) rich superficial cortex and a cytochrome oxidase (CO) rich central nucleus. In both species, focal injections of anterograde tracers in the cochlear nucleus at sites of known best frequency produced bands of labeled inputs in two different subdivisions of the IC. A medial band of axons terminated in the central nucleus, while shorter bands were located laterally and oriented nearly perpendicularly to the medial bands. In the rat, these Fedratinib price lateral bands were located in the third, deepest layer of the lateral (external) cortex. In the cat, the bands were located in a region that was previously ascribed to the central nucleus, but now considered to belong to the third, deepest layer of the LC, the ventrolateral nucleus. In both species, the LC inputs had a tonotopic organization. In view of this parallel organization, we propose a common parcellation of the IC for rat and cat

with a new nomenclature. The deep layer of the LC, previously referred to as layer 3 in the rat, is designated as the ‘ventrolateral nucleus’ selleck inhibitor of the LC, making it clear that this region is thought to be homologous with the ventrolateral nucleus in the cat. The similar organization of the LC implies that this subdivision of the IC has similar functions in cats and rats. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) thermogenesis is accompanied with oxidative stress. In spite of the ability of rats to synthesize selleck vitamin C, we tested the possibility that its additional intake may improve the tissue antioxidative protection. Thus, we studied the MAT oxidative status in rats supplemented by two doses of ascorbic acid over a 4-week period of time.

Our results confirmed that the additional intake of ascorbate improves the tissue antioxidative defense. Probably acting through enhanced insulin release, vitamin C also exerted some metabolic effects, which emphasize its role in the regulation of IBAT functions under normal

physiological conditions. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“(1) Investigations of the effect of temperature on body size are largely limited to the larval phase, with our understanding of the effect of temperature during metamorphic climax entirely restricted to the insects.

(2) Environmental temperature was manipulated only during metamorphosis in the aquatic amphibian Xenopus laevis.

(3) Lower temperatures during metamorphosis resulted in individuals with greater mass, head width and snout-vent length on the completion of metamorphosis.

(4) This suggests that temperatures experienced during the relatively short metamorphic phase will play an important part in determining the temperature-size relationship in amphibians.

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