In addition, we developed an abbreviated version of the PHQ-15 (aPHQ-15) and studied validity measures.\n\nMethods: Three-hundred and fifty Korean college and graduate students were screened with the PHQ-15. Of all participants, 176 were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to diagnose major depressive episode, while the other 174 were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report
(IDS-SR). Reliability and validity measures including the internal consistency, test retest reliability, and criterion, convergent, and divergent validity were tested. Principal component learn more analysis was used in developing the abbreviated version of check details the PHQ-15.\n\nResults: The PHQ-15 showed good internal consistency and test retest reliability (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82, intra-class correlation coefficient 0.87). The optimal cut-off point for detecting depression was estimated to be 8.
There were strong correlations between the PHQ-15 total scores and self-report measures of depressive symptom severity (BDI-II: r = 0.69 and p < 0.001, IDS-SR: r = 0.77 and p < 0.001). The 5-item aPHQ-15 had comparable validity with the PHQ-15.\n\nConclusions: The somatic symptom-focused PHQ-15 and aPHQ-15 can work as effective screening tools for depression. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Previously published molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Chaetophorales (Chlorophyceae) suffered from limited taxon sampling (six PHA-848125 purchase genera with only a single species per genus). To test the monophyly of species-rich genera, and to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among families and genera in the Chaetophorales, we determined nuclear-encoded SSU rDNA sequences from 30 strains of Chaetophorales, performed phylogenetic analyses using various methods, and screened
clades for support by unique molecular synapomorphies in the SSU rRNA secondary structure. The Schizomeridaceae and the weakly supported Aphanochaetaceae were recovered as basal lineages. The derived family Chaetophoraceae diverged into two clades: the “Uronema clade” containing unbranched filaments, and a sister clade designated as “branched Chaetophoraceae” comprising Chaetophora, Stigeoclonium, Draparnaldia, Caespitella, and Fritschiella. Although some terminal clades corresponded to genera described (e.g., Caespitella and Draparnaldia), other clades were in conflict with traditional taxonomic designations. Especially, the genera Stigeoclonium and Chaetophora were shown to be polyphyletic. The globose species Chaetophora elegans was unrelated to lobate Chaetophora spp. (e.g., Chaetophora lobata). Since the original description of Chaetophora referred to a lobate thallus organization, the latter clade represented Chaetophora sensu stricto. In consequence, C.