Hypothermia may then be applied immediately after exercise, while

Hypothermia may then be applied immediately after exercise, while high dosages of anti-inflammatory nutrients such as green tea extract may be taken as additional support on these exercise days. If available, massage treatments could then be added on ‘non exercise days’ in order to complement the overall antifibrotic treatment. However, any exercise regimen should be accompanied by regular assessment of antioxidant stress levels as well as the on-going development of fibrotic tissue changes (see below). General considerations for clinical treatment Fibrosis in

DMD is a complex cascade Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical involving mechanical, humoral and cellular factors. Originating from wounded myofibres, muscle cell necrosis and inflammatory processes are present in DMD. Muscular recovery is limited due to the limited number and capacity of satellite cells.

Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Hence, a proactive and multimodal approach is necessary in order to activate protective mechanisms and to hinder catabolic and tissue degrading pathways. Fibrotic changes in muscle are not confined to DMD muscle. Back in the 1980s, Michelsson developed an animal model to study the effects that develop after forceful exercise of immobilised limbs. He concluded that autoinflammatory processes lead to myositis and secondarily Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to fibrosis and even calcification with heterotopic bone formation (73). Two main points can be extracted for DMD. First of all, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical immobilisation is not advisable and second forceful overstrain should be avoided. Corticosteroids are frequently used in myofascial inflammation. Corticosteroids generally reduce gene expression and inhibit the proliferation and activity of myofibroblasts, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical which mainly leads to suppression of collagen production. Additionally myofibroblast migration, which is fundamental in fibrosis, is delayed after corticosteroid injection. These corticoid-associated disturbances on tendon cell metabolism

may affect the structural for integrity of the tendon and weaken its mechanical properties. There are many side effects of corticosteroids, which include a risk of diabetes, disturbance of hormonal glands and metabolism, suppression of angioneogenesis, immune learn more function and coagulation. Hence, therapeutic protocols that lower the use of corticosteroids are desirable. Stiffening of pulmonary and pericardial connective tissues Mortality in DMD patients is often due to respiratory or cardiac problems. In both body areas – the pulmonary and the pericardial connective tissues – the fibrotic changes in muscular dystrophy tend to be very severely expressed and they tend to influence strongly muscular function (74, 75). An increased stiffening of related tissues can impair muscular function.

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