Gupta PB, Onder TT, Jiang G, Tao K, Kuperwasser C, Weinberg RA: I

Gupta PB, Onder TT, Jiang G, Tao K, Kuperwasser C, Weinberg RA: Identification of selective inhibitors of cancer stem cells by high-throughput screening. Cell 2009, 138:645–659.PubMedCrossRef 41. Li L, Yu H, Wang X, Zeng J, Li D, Lu J, et al.:

Expression of seven stem-cell-associated markers in human airway biopsy specimens obtained via fiberoptic bronchoscopy. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2013, 32:28.PubMedCrossRef 42. Chen Z, Wang T, Cai L, Su C, Zhong B, Lei Y, et al.: Clinicopathological significance of non-small cell lung cancer with high prevalence of Oct-4 tumor cells. selleck chemicals llc J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2012, 31:10.PubMedCrossRef 43. Wang Q, Mora-Jensen H, Weniger MA, Perez-Galan P, Wolford C, Hai T, et al.: ERAD inhibitors integrate ER stress with an epigenetic mechanism to activate BH3-only protein NOXA PF477736 in cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad

Sci USA 2009, 106:2200–2205.PubMedCrossRef 44. Hayashi T, Saito A, Okuno S, Ferrand-Drake M, Dodd RL, Nishi T, et al.: Oxidative damage to the endoplasmic reticulum is implicated in ischemic neuronal cell death. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2003, 23:1117–1128.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions LS and XL designed research; XZ and LS performed research; XZ and LS analyzed data; XZ, XL and LS wrote the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Gastric cancer is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors, especially in Asia [1]. Although early detection methods, development of endoscopic or surgical resection, and more effective chemotherapies have improved the overall survival in patients with gastric cancer, the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer is still poor [2–4]. Most conventional chemotherapy treatments have demonstrated

moderate efficiency. One possible explanation 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase for the resistance of gastric cancer to conventional therapy might be its non-susceptibility to apoptosis [5]. However, oncolytic viruses have great therapeutic effects against cancer cells which express high levels of ribonucleotide reductase, DNA-repair enzymes, and are thus resistant to apoptosis [6, 7]. Many of these characteristics which make gastric cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy, make them susceptible to oncolytic viral therapy. Thus, gene therapy using oncolytic virus offers an attractive alternative for the treatment of gastric cancer [8]. Oncolytic viral therapy has been studied over the past century and shown success in preclinical and clinical testing as a novel cancer treatment modality [9]. Vaccinia virus (VACV) strains are particularly attractive as potential antitumor agents, as they can incorporate large amounts of foreign DNA without reducing their replication efficiency. Moreover, VACV has shown a great Selleck Bafilomycin A1 safety profile in humans [10–12].

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