Genomics 1998, 54: 145–148 CrossRefPubMed 34 Yatsuoka T, Sunamur

Genomics 1998, 54: 145–148.CrossRefPubMed 34. Yatsuoka T, Sunamura M, Furukawa T, Fukushige S, Yokoyama T, Inoue H, Shibuya K, C188-9 nmr Takeda K, Matsuno S, Horii A: Association of poor prognosis with loss of 12q, 17p, and 18q, and concordant loss of 6q/17p and 12q/18q in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol 2000, 95: 2080–2085.CrossRefPubMed 35. Harada T, Okita K, Shiraishi K, Kusano N, Furuya T, Oga A, Kawauchi S, Kondoh S, Sasaki K: Detection of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancers by comparative genomic hybridization coupled with tissue microdissection and degenerate oligonucleotide primed polymerase chain reaction.

Oncology 2002, 62: 251–258.CrossRefPubMed Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing 17DMAG interests. Authors’ contributions KN conceived of the study and performed immunohistochemical studies and measurements of serum metastin. RD conceived of the study, and participated Pitavastatin manufacturer in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. FK and TI conceived of the study and performed immunohistochemical studies. AK and MK conceived of the study and performed measurements of serum meatstin. TM, YK, KT, SO and NF conceived of the study and performed

experiments on pancreatic cancer tissues. SU conceived of the study, and participated in its design.”
“Background The A-type lamins (predominantly lamins A and C, two alternatively spliced products of the LMNA gene), along with B-type lamins (members of the intermediate filament

proteins), are the most principal components of the nuclear lamina-a proteinaceous meshwork of 10 nm diameter filaments lying at the interface between chromatin and the inner nuclear membrane. The nuclear lamina is thought to be a principal determinant of nuclear architecture. Downregulation or specific mutations in lamins cause abnormal nuclear shape, changes in heterochromatin localization at the nuclear periphery, global chromatin reorganization and possibly specific changes in the positions of genes NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase [1]. It is possible that changes in the nuclear lamina and in nuclear shape affect chromatin organization and gene positioning, respectively, and in this way alter patterns of gene expression, contributing to transformation [2]. Lamin A/C is important in DNA replication, chromatin anchoring, spatial orientation of nuclear pore complexes, RNA Pol II-dependent transcription and nuclear stabilization [3]. With regard to the multiple functions of A-type lamins, mutations in the human LMNA gene cause a wide range of heritable diseases collectively termed laminopathies [4]. Importantly, numerous studies suggest that reduced or absent lamin A/C expression is a common feature of a variety of different cancers, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC), skin basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, testicular germ cell tumour, prostatic carcinoma, leukemia and lymphomas.

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