For pediatric patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection

For pediatric patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection, ertapenem, meropenem, imipenem/cilastatin, ticarcillin-clavulanate, and piperacillin-tazobactam as single-agent therapy or Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime, ceftazidime, each in combination with metronidazole, gentamicin or tobramycin, each in combination with metronidazole or clindamycin, and with or without ampicillin are recommended [103]. Beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, have been widely used in the last decade. Their in vitro activity includes gram-positive (include Enterococci in their spectrum), gram-negative and learn more anaerobe organisms [107, 108]. Among beta-lactam/beta-lactamase

inhibitor agents, ticarcillin/clavulanate and ampicillin/sulbactam have been used in the treatment of intra mild to moderate intra-abdominal infections. Ampicillin-sulbactam is still indicated for community infections of mild-to-moderate severity [109], however the increasing resistance of Enterobacteriaceae reported in the last decade could compromise its clinical effectiveness [110]. Piperacillin/tazobactam is a beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination with increased gram-negative spectrum and anti-pseudomonas activity. Piperacillin/tazobactam retains in vitro activity against broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing, many extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae

and many Pseudomonas isolates. It is still a reliable option for the empiric treatment of high risk intra-abdominal infections [111]. Carbapenems have a spectrum selleck compound of antimicrobial activity that includes Gram-positive (except resistant gram positive cocci) and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic pathogens. Group 1 carbapenems

includes ertapenem, a once a day carbapenem that shares the activity of imipenem and meropenem against most species, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens [112, 113], but is not active against non-fermentative gram negative and Enterococcus. Ertapenem is particularly suitable for low risk community-acquired intra-abdominal infections. Once-daily ertapenem is an interesting option for the treatment of these infections. Group 2 includes imipenem/cilastatin, meropenem and doripenem, Histone demethylase that share activity against non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli and are particularly suitable for severe infections. Doripenem is a new 1-β-methyl carbapenem recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. Doripenem similarly to imipenem and meropenem, has a broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria [114, 115]. Doripenem is more effective, in vitro, than meropenem and imipenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa [116, 117].

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