Dev Comp Immunol 2007, 31:1145–1158 PubMedCrossRef 83 Serbus LR,

Dev Comp Immunol 2007, 31:1145–1158.PubMedCrossRef 83. Serbus LR, LY3009104 datasheet Sullivan W: A cellular basis for Wolbachia recruitment to the host germline. PLoS Pathog 2007, 3:e190.PubMedCrossRef 84. Rigaud T, Juchault P: Success and failure of horizontal transfers

of feminizing Wolbachia endosymbionts in woodlice. J Evol Biol 1995, 8:249–255.CrossRef 85. Hughes GL, Ren X, Ramirez JL, Sakamoto JM, Bailey JA, Jedlicka AE, Rasgon JL: Wolbachia infections in Anopheles gambiae cells: transcriptomic characterization of a novel host-symbiont interaction. PLoS Pathog 2011, 7:e1001296.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions KU-60019 ic50 FC performed the RT-qPCR experiments and analysis, the bioinformatics analysis, and drafted the manuscript. JHG participated in the design of experiments, H 89 research buy prepared the libraries, and participated in the sequence analysis. DC participated in the design of experiments, carried out the EST data processing and analysis, and helped for statistical analysis of expression data. GM helped to design RT-qPCR experiments and reviewed the manuscript. FG and PW sequenced the libraries. PG,

CBV and DB conceived and coordinated the study, participated in its design, and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Wolbachia pipientis Ergoloid is a maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacterium that infects a wide range of nematodes and arthropods. It is responsible for the induction of several forms of reproductive manipulation in its arthropod hosts, all of which favour infected females at the expense of their uninfected counterparts. Cytoplasmic incompatibility, classically seen in its unidirectional form in crosses between uninfected females and infected males where there is high embryo mortality,

provides a powerful insect population invasion capacity. Recently, the presence of Wolbachia has been associated with the inhibition of viral [1–5] filarial nematode [6] and Plasmodium [3, 7] pathogens. In addition, Wolbachia is capable of inducing the production of anti-oxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) [8], innate immune effectors [6, 7, 9] as well as increasing haemocyte densities [10]. However the molecular nature of the interactions between this symbiotic bacterium and the insect immune system are not well characterized. If Wolbachia is to be used optimally in applied strategies to disrupt pathogen transmission in mosquitoes and other pest insects, it is important to gain a better understanding of what Wolbachia molecules are involved in eliciting insect immune responses, and whether responses to these molecules differ between naturally Wolbachia-infected and uninfected hosts.

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