Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery provides a unique opportunity to assess these different ideas since neuronal activity can be directly selleck compound recorded from PD patients. The emerging data suggest that the pathophysiologic changes include derangements in the overall firing rates, decreased neuronal selectivity, and increased neuronal oscillation and synchronization. Thus, elements of all hypotheses are present, emphasizing that the loss of dopamine results in a profound and multifaceted disruption of
normal information flow through the basal ganglia that ultimately leads to the signs and symptoms of PD. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is remarkably effective for a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders that have failed pharmacological and cell transplant therapies. Clinical investigations are underway for a variety of other conditions. Yet, the therapeutic mechanisms of action are unknown. In addition, DBS research demonstrates the need to re-consider many hypotheses regarding basal ganglia physiology and pathophysiology
such as the notion that increased activity in the globus pallidus internal segment is causal to GDC-0449 clinical trial Parkinson’s disease symptoms. Studies reveal a variety of apparently discrepant results. At the least, it is unclear which DBS effects are therapeutically effective. This systematic review attempts to organize current DBS research into a series of unifying themes or issues such as whether the therapeutic effects are local or systems-wide
or whether the effects are related to inhibition or excitation. A number of alternative hypotheses are offered for consideration including suppression of abnormal activity, striping basal ganglia output of misinformation, reduction of abnormal stochastic resonance effects due to increased noise in the disease state, and reinforcement of dynamic modulation of neuronal activity by resonance effects. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Entospletinib concentration basal ganglia have been a target for neuromodulation surgery since Russell Meyers’ pioneering works in the late 1930s. Contemporary movement disorder surgery on the brain has evolved from empiric observations on movement behavior after neurological lesions. So too has the development of psychiatric surgical procedures followed the observation of lesions in the brain on cognitive and affective behavior. Just as deep brain stimulation (DBS) has revolutionized the practice of movement disorder surgery, its application to psychiatric illness has become the cutting edge of functional and restorative neurosurgery. The fundamental concept of the cortico-striatal-pallido-thalamocortical loop will be explored in the context of psychiatric disorders.