Data are expressed as mean ± SD. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 as compared to control. Figure S3. (A) Fleshly isolated CD4+CD25- and CD4+CD25+ T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 mAb (0.5 ìg / mL) and IL-12 receptor (IL-12R) ® chain expression was analyzed with flowcytometry. Bold line : CD4+CD25- T cells, Thin line: CD4+CD25+ T cells, filled grey : isotype control. (B) Expression level of IL-12R®2
after siRNA treatment was confirmed. 1 × 106 siRNA transfected or untreated CD4+CD25- T cells were cultured with 1 × 105 irradiated autologous CD4-depleted PBMCs and anti-CD3 mAb. Three days later, cells were harvested and RNA was extracted to confirm knockdown of IL-12R®2 expression by real-time RT-PCR. The relative differences in gene expression were calculated using threshold
cycle (Ct) values that were normalized to those of Osimertinib datasheet TATA-box-binding protein gene, and compared with the relative Ct value of untreated CD4+CD25- T cells by the 2-ddCt. (C)) 1 × 104 CD4+CD25- T cells with/without siRNA treatment were cultured with 1 × 105 irradiated autologous CD4-depleted PBMCs and anti-CD3 mAb in the presence or absence of 5 × 103 CD4+CD25high Tregs with OK-432 (1 ìg / mL). Proliferation was evaluated as described in Materials and Methods. These experiments were performed independently at least twice with similar results. Data are expressed as mean ± SD. “
“Citation Noronha LE, Antczak DF. Maternal immune responses to trophoblast: selleck products the contribution of the horse to pregnancy immunology. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010 The horse has proven to be a distinctively informative species in the study of pregnancy immunology for several reasons. First, unique aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the equine conceptus facilitate approaches that are not possible in other model organisms, such as non-surgical Resveratrol recovery of early stage embryos and conceptuses and isolation of pure trophoblast cell populations. Second, pregnant mares make strong cytotoxic antibody responses to paternal major histocompatibility complex class I antigens expressed by the chorionic girdle cells, permitting detailed evaluation of the antigenicity of
these invasive trophoblasts and how they affect the maternal immune system. Third, there is abundant evidence for local maternal cellular immune responses to the invading trophoblasts in the pregnant mare. The survival of the equine fetus in the face of strong maternal immune responses highlights the complex immunoregulatory mechanisms that result in materno–fetal tolerance. Finally, the parallels between human and horse trophoblast cell types, their gene expression, and function make the study of equine pregnancy highly relevant to human health. Here, we review the most pertinent aspects of equine reproductive immunology and how studies of the pregnant mare have contributed to our understanding of maternal acceptance of the allogeneic fetus.