Cognitive impulsivity was assessed by a delay-discounting paradigm, and impulsive action, attention and compulsive-like behavior by a five choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT). ELS decreased pup body weight and increased the care of the biological mother; however, the “substitute” mother did not exhibit overt maltreatment. A mixture of “detrimental” and “beneficial” effects was shown. In the 5CSRTT, attention was impaired in both genders, and in females, ELS increased compulsive-like behavior. Novel object exploration was only increased by ELS in males, but the preference for novel spaces
decreased in both genders. Baseline selleck chemicals llc anxiety (EPM and ASR) and recognition memory were not affected. Unexpectedly, ELS decreased the ACTH response to novelty and swim stress and increased active coping in the EST in both genders. Cognitive impulsivity was decreased only in females, but impulsive action was not affected. The enhancement in maternal care may “buffer” the effects of ELS in a context-dependent manner.”
“We examined whether www.selleckchem.com/products/ink128.html new policies restricting sales in schools of so-called competitive foods and beverages-those that fall outside of what is served through federally reimbursed school meal programs-influenced increasing rates of overweight children in the Los Angeles
Unified School District and the rest of California. After these policies, which set stricter nutrition standards for certain food and beverages sold to students, took effect, the rate of increase in overweight selleckchem children significantly diminished among fifth graders in Los Angeles and among fifth-grade boys and seventh graders in the rest of California. The extent to which the new nutritional policies contributed to the change is unclear. This is one of the first studies examining the postulated population-level influence of recently implemented policies aimed at sales of competitive foods and beverages in schools.”
“Demographic connectivity requires both the dispersal of individuals between sub-populations, and their subsequent contribution to population dynamics.
For planktonic, non-feeding marine larvae, the capacity to delay settlement enables greater dispersal distances, but the energetic cost of delayed settlement has been shown to adversely impact post-settlement fitness in several taxa. Here, we assess whether delayed settlement influences mortality rates or growth rates for the first 6 weeks following settlement of the scleractinian coral, Acropora tenuis. Coral larvae that were settled at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after spawning, and then deployed in the field, showed negligible effects of delayed settlement on post-settlement survival and time to initial budding for colony formation. Between-cohort differences in budding rate appeared to be explained by temporal variation in the post-settlement acquisition of zooxanthellae.