[doi: 10 1063/1 3456499]“
“Pelargonium reniforme Curtis is a

[doi: 10.1063/1.3456499]“
“Pelargonium reniforme Curtis is an herb used for the treatment of various human and animal diseases especially in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The effects of the oral administration of aqueous extract of the plant roots at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight for 21 days on some haematological and biochemical parameters in male Wistar rats were investigated. Oral treatments with this extract did not cause any significant change in the

white blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, monocytes, large unsustained cells, basophils, total and conjugated bilirubin. Also, the extract did not affect the level of albumin, gamma glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase,

cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and the organ body-weight ratio of the animals. selleckchem The levels of potassium, urea, calcium and magnesium were also not affected by the extract. However, the red blood cell count, haemoglobin, platelets, lymphocytes, total proteins, globulin and sodium levels were increased significantly while the levels of alkaline phosphatase, chloride and uric acid were reduced significantly by the extract. In addition, the levels of packed cell volume, red cell distribution width, eosinophils, triglycerides, creatinine MK-4827 cell line and inorganic phosphorus were altered at specific doses. The available results of this study suggest that the aqueous root extract of P. reniforme is not toxic at the doses used in this study and may be safe for medicinal uses.”
“This paper reviews recent progress in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from

electroencephalograms U0126 mouse (EEG). Three major effects of AD on EEG have been observed: slowing of the EEG, reduced complexity of the EEG signals, and perturbations in EEG synchrony. In recent years, a variety of sophisticated computational approaches has been proposed to detect those subtle perturbations in the EEG of AD patients. The paper first describes methods that try to detect slowing of the EEG. Next the paper deals with several measures for EEG complexity, and explains how those measures have been used to study fluctuations in EEG complexity in AD patients. Then various measures of EEG synchrony are considered in the context of AD diagnosis.

Also the issue of EEG preprocessing is briefly addressed. Before one can analyze EEG, it is necessary to remove artifacts due to for example head and eye movement or interference from electronic equipment. Pre-processing of EEG has in recent years received much attention. In this paper, several state-of-the-art pre-processing techniques are outlined, for example, based on blind source separation and other non-linear filtering paradigms.

In addition, the paper outlines opportunities and limitations of computational approaches for diagnosing AD based on EEG. At last, future challenges and open problems are discussed.

Concomitant nail debridement further increases cure rates Topica

Concomitant nail debridement further increases cure rates. Topical therapy with ciclopirox is less effective; it has a failure rate exceeding 60%. Several nonprescription treatments have also been evaluated. Laser and photodynamic

therapies show promise based on in-vitro evaluation, but more clinical studies are needed. Despite Aurora Kinase inhibitor treatment, the recurrence rate of onychomycosis is 10% to 50% as a result of reinfection or lack of mycotic cure. Copyright (C) 2013 American Academy of Family Physicians.”
“BACKGROUND: Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is recommended as the primary marker to guide lipid-lowering therapy, some data suggest non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) may better reflect coronary heart disease risk. Discordance AZD1208 purchase between these measures has not been evaluated.

METHODS: We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2010 (n = 4986) to examine the discordance between these lipid parameters. Elevated levels of non-HDL-C and LDL-C were defined by using the 2004 Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines.


The prevalence of high non-HDL-C and LDL-C was 22.7% and 24.5%, respectively. Of participants with high non-HDL-C, 9.7% had normal LDL-C, whereas 15.7% of participants with high LDL-C had normal non-HDL-C. We estimate 3 9 million US adults had high non-HDL-C and normal LDL-C, whereas 6.8 million US adults had high LDL-C and normal non-HDL-C. Persons with high non-HDL-C and normal LDL-C were older, more likely to be men, Hispanic, and have impaired fasting glucose, diabetes metabolic syndrome, and more risk factors for coronary heart disease.

CONCLUSIONS: Substantial discordance exists between high non-HDL-C and high LDL-C among US Akt inhibitor adults. Reliance on either single measure could result in failure to classify cardiovascular heart disease risks appropriately. (c) 2014

National Lipid Association. All rights reserved.”
“Aims To develop and validate a urinary diary, using the psychometric validation protocol applied to all International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ) modules. Methods Patient and clinician opinion was sought on diary content, format, and duration using interviews and questionnaires. Content deemed essential for inclusion were incorporated into four draft diary formats (Phase 1a). Four rounds of content validation using patient-completed diaries or patient interviews and one round of clinician opinion were undertaken, before a consensus was achieved (Phase 1b). Results Phase 1a: 27 patients were interviewed and 30 clinicians returned a questionnaire regarding diary content, format and duration. Content deemed essential for inclusion was identified. Patients reported no format preference but preferred a diary of =7 days. Clinicians preferred a 3-day diary in single sheet format. Phase 1b: 75 of 200 (37.

The thermal analysis measurements revealed that both the blocked

The thermal analysis measurements revealed that both the blocked TDI- and IPDI-based polyisocyanates www.selleckchem.com/products/qnz-evp4593.html started to deblock at about 55-85 degrees C. Compared to the CL-blocked

polyisocyanates, the MEKO- and EC-blocked polyisocyanates had lower thermal dissociation temperatures and faster deblocking rates. We also found that the initial deblocking temperatures of the TDI-based adducts were lower than those of the IPDI-based adducts. The water resistance and tensile properties of the composite films from the blocked-polyisocyanate crosslinkers and hydroxyl-polyurethane emulsion (HPUE) matrix were studied. The tensile strength increased and the elongation at break were lower in the composites compared to the pure HPUE film. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 748-757, 2011″

reconfigurable surface acoustic wave reflector using an integrated magnetoresistive bit was fabricated and evaluated for use in programmable radio frequency identification tags. It is shown that two distinct reflectivities can be achieved depending Selleckchem Nutlin-3 on the magnetic state of the bit. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations of optimal reflectivities achievable from resistively loaded surface acoustic wave transducers. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3565998]“
“A well-defined amphiphilic block copolymer was synthesized by the coupling of carboxyl-terminated methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) with ABT-263 datasheet a hydroxyl-terminated octamer of glycolic acid, which was obtained by a stepwise synthetic procedure with the end-group protection and deprotection. The block copolymer had a polydispersity index (PDI) of 1.01, as determined by gel permeation chromatography. It was further coupled to paclitaxel to form a prodrug of paclitaxel. The paclitaxel content in the prodrug was about 10%, and its PDI was 1.02. The antitumor activity of the conjugate against human lung carcinoma

A549 cells was evaluated by mitochondrial dehydrogenase (MTT) assay. The results show that paclitaxel could be released from the conjugate without losing cytotoxicity. Therefore, the well-defined amphiphilic block copolymer from MPEG and oligomer of glycolic acid could potentially provide novel opportunities to obtain reproducible pharmacokinetic behavior in the design of a drug-delivery system. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 758-766, 2011″
“Using first principles calculations, we investigated interface structure effects on the magnetic properties of the Fe/BaTiO3 system. On the BaO-terminated surface, a Fe monolayer is formed as two Fe atoms are adsorbed on the top sites of Ba and O in the (1 X 1) surface unit and a Fe monolayer (ML) is formed on the TiO2-terminated surface as two Fe atoms are adsorbed on the two O top sites. The magnetic anisotropy energy of Fe was higher on the TiO2-terminated surface (1.


endpoints included the blood-pressure-lowering


endpoints included the blood-pressure-lowering efficacy and the overall safety and tolerability of valsartan at Weeks 4 and 12. Results. The monotherapy and combination groups had comparable baseline characteristics. At Week 4, monotherapy was found non-inferior to combination for incidence rate of dizziness (monotherapy, 9.25%; combination, 10%; difference in incidence of dizziness, 0.75%; 95% CI – 0.61% to 2.12%; non-inferiority margin, HSP990 solubility dmso -1.33%; Wald Test approach). Greater blood pressure (BP) reduction was noted at Week 12 than at Week 4. The antihypertensive effect was greater with combination therapy and the 160-mg dose. BP control (systolic <140 mmHg or diastolic <90 mmHg) was achieved in 80-90% patients. Valsartan was well tolerated; most commonly reported adverse events included dizziness, headache, constipation and cough. Conclusion. Valsartan is an effective treatment option for essential hypertension in Taiwanese patients.”
“Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with frequent recurrent AZD8055 cell line psychotic relapses and progressive functional impairment. It results from a poorly understood gene-environment interaction. The gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is a likely candidate for schizophrenia. Its rs165599 (A/G) polymorphism has been shown to be associated with alteration of COMT gene expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate a possible association

between schizophrenia and this polymorphism. The distribution of the alleles and genotypes of this polymorphism was investigated in a Brazilian sample of

245 patients and 834 controls. The genotypic frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no statistically significant differences were found between cases and controls when analyzed according to gender or schizophrenia subtypes. There was also no difference in homozygosis between cases and controls. Thus, in the sample studied, there C188-9 clinical trial was no evidence of any association between schizophrenia and rs165599 (A/G) polymorphism in the non-coding region 3′ of the COMT gene.”

The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk of rubella infection for pregnant women in the outbreak area.

Material & Methods:

We performed a retrospective, population-based study on all 232 pregnant women during the rubella outbreak period in Tokunoshima Island. All women had a rubella hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer drawn during their current pregnancy. In 61 women, HI titers were compared between the current and past pregnancies. Rubella IgG antibody titers were measured and IgG avidity index (AI) was calculated for 92 non-infected pregnant women.


Of the 232 candidates, 22 pregnant women contracted rubella infection (congenitally infected infants: 2). Seventeen of 61 pregnant women showed a four-fold or greater elevation in HI titer when compared with previous titers. Their previous HI titers were all < 64.

The comparison of expression profiles in the tumour samples allow

The comparison of expression profiles in the tumour samples allows the search for a radiation signature, whereas the comparison of expression profiles of the normal contralateral tissues offers

a substantial opportunity for assessing the existence of a susceptibility to radiation that could be responsible for tumour development. We have undertaken this analysis as part of a European Union-funded project, GENRISK-T. Gene expression profiles were investigated in tumours that have arisen in the population exposed to fallout from Chernobyl (i.e. born before 26 April 1986) and were compared with profiles of tumours of similar pathology arising in an age-matched population, residing in the same HKI-272 geographical area (same ethnicity) and born after 1 January 1987. RNA samples from these tumours and their contralateral normal tissues were obtained from the Chernobyl Tissue Bank. Several lines of evidence suggest that the selleck compound predisposition to developing cancer after radiation exposure is variable in the general population and may be measurable from gene expression. (C) 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“By means of experimental methods and ab initio total energy calculations, we have studied

the stability and properties of nitrogen doped Sb2Te3 (NST). The NST film

displayed a higher crystallization temperature and sheet resistance than undoped Sb2Te3 (ST) film. Nevertheless, the sheet resistance of the crystalline NST film unexpectedly increased as the temperature increased when the temperature was above 260 degrees C. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the nitrogen concentration and the Sb-N bonds were decreasing as the annealing temperature increased, and no nitrogen existed in the NST when annealed at 300 degrees C for 5 min. Our theoretical calculations showed that the incorporation of nitrogen into crystalline Sb2Te3 was not energetically favorable, and the nitrogen atoms preferred forming chemical bonds with Sb atoms to Te atoms. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. G418 [doi:10.1063/1.3660705]“
“The effect of a herbomineral formulation (HMF) on early diabetic nephropathy was investigated. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by administering streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). The occurrence of early diabetic nephropathy in rats was revealed by high plasma glucose and depleted liver glycogen, decreased glucose uptake by peripheral tissue, impaired renal function, increased antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in kidney. These changes were accompanied by elevated malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity in kidney.

The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl aceta

The composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS and bornyl acetate (30.31%), camphene (19.81%), 3-carene (13.85%), tricyclene (12.90%), dl-limonene (7.50%), alpha-pinene (2.87%), caryophyllene (2.18′%), beta-phellandrene (2.13%), borneol (1.74%), bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene,2,3dimethyl (1.64%) and alpha-terpinene (1.24%) were the major components in the oil. The results tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that the oil showed no cytotoxic effect, INCB018424 concentration at concentrations of I and 5%, for as long as 24 and 3 h, respectively. The antiradical capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity

of the essential oil on the 2,20-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) and 2,2′-azino-bis 3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals. The oil was able

to reduce the both radicals dose-dependently, and the concentration required for 50% reduction (RC50) against DPPH radicals (2.7 +/- 0.63%) was lower than ABTS radicals (8.5 +/- 0.27%). The antibacterial activity of the oil was also evaluated using disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Listeria monocytogenes, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticcus. The oil exhibited no antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except S. aureus of mild activity.”
“Background-Genome-wide association CT99021 studies (GWAS) have identified a number of single-nucleotide

polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum lipid level in populations of European descent. The individual Adavosertib Cell Cycle inhibitor and the cumulative effect of these SNPs on blood lipids are largely unclear for the US population.

Methods and Results-Using data from the second phase (1991-1994) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a nationally representative survey of the US population, we examined associations of 57 GWAS-identified or well-established lipid-related genetic loci with plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio, and non-HDL-C. We used multivariable linear regression to examine single SNP associations and the cumulative effect of multiple SNPs (using a genetic risk score [GRS]) on blood lipid levels. Analyses were conducted in adults from each of the 3 major racial/ethnic groups in the United States: non-Hispanic whites (n = 2296), non-Hispanic blacks (n = 1699), and Mexican Americans (n = 1713). Allele frequencies for all SNPs varied significantly by race/ethnicity, except rs3764261 in CETP. Individual SNPs had very small effects on lipid levels, effects that were generally consistent in direction across racial/ethnic groups.

“Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues as

“Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis continues as a global epidemic: over 2 billion people harbor latent TB infection, and more than 9 million new TB cases, of whom 500,000 are multidrug-resistant (MDR), and nearly 2 million deaths are estimated to occur each year. New drugs are required to shorten treatment duration of drug-sensitive TB and for the treatment

of MDR-TB. TMC207 is a first-in-class diarylquinoline compound with a novel mechanism of action, the inhibition of bacterial ATP synthase, and potent activity against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB. It has bactericidal and sterilizing activity against M. tuberculosis and other mycobacterial species, but little activity against other bacteria. In a Phase II efficacy study conducted in patients with MDR-TB taking TMC207 plus a standard background Cyclopamine supplier regimen, the drug appeared to be safe and well tolerated, and showed significant efficacy after 2 months of treatment with conversion rates of sputum

culture of 48% (vs 9% in the placebo group). Given the product development partnership between Tibotec and the TB Alliance, the strategies of using TMC207 in shorter first-line regimens or using it in second-line regimens for drug-resistant M. tuberculosis infections are both being pursued. No clinical data of TMC207 in TB patients with HIV coinfection have been published; drug-drug interaction studies with antiretrovirals are being conducted. Finally, the remarkable sterilizing capacity of TMC207 also makes it an attractive drug in the strategy of TB elimination. Current and future studies will determine the role of TMC207 in a shortened Entinostat mw treatment regimen for drug-sensitive TB, a more effective and better-tolerated regimen for MDR-TB, the treatment of latent TB infection, ZD1839 mouse and intermittent-TB treatment regimens.”
“Optical reflection, transmission, and absorption in arrays of GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires are studied using transfer matrix and photonic bandgap formalisms, analyzing the effects of size, geometry, height, packing density, and polarization. Energy dependence of the spectra demonstrates optical modes

in the dielectric, similar to guided resonant modes, and also the air bands. Simulation of polarization dependence verifies higher absorption with the electric field along the wire axis. Higher absorption at much lower volume compared to thin film, combined with excellent charge transport, make core-shell nanowire arrays excellent candidates for optoelectronics applications. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3555096]“
“Little is known about brain tumors in early infancy. Investigators reviewed the records of 27 patients (12 boys and 15 girls) diagnosed within 120 days of birth. The median age was 66 days (range, 0-110 days) at diagnosis. All patients underwent surgery; 18 received adjuvant chemotherapy, and 3 received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 2.

17 %, P < 0 001) The interaction NDI* air temperature was a s

17 %, P < 0.001). The interaction NDI* air temperature was a significant multivariate predictor of hypothermia (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI 1.01-1.06, P = 0.033).

The NDI could be an adequate tool to target fuel poverty in older people.”
“Background: The Tanzanian government recommends women who attend antenatal care (ANC) clinics to accept receiving intermittent preventive treatment against malaria during BI-D1870 manufacturer pregnancy (IPTp) and vouchers for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) at subsidized prices. Little emphasis has been

paid to investigate the ability of pregnant women to access and effectively utilize these services.

Objectives: To describe the experience and perceptions of pregnant women about costs and cost barriers for accessing ANC services with emphasis on IPTp in rural Tanzania.

Methods: Qualitative data were collected in the districts of Mufindi in Iringa Region and Mkuranga in Coast Region through 1) focus group discussions (FGDs) with pregnant women and mothers to infants and 2) exit-interviews with pregnant women identified at ANC clinics. Data were analyzed manually using qualitative content analysis methodology.

Findings: FGD participants and interview respondents identified the following key limiting factors for women’s use of ANC services: 1) costs in terms of money and time associated with accessing ANC clinics, 2) the presence of more or less official user-fees for some services within the ANC package, and

3) service providers’ application of fines, penalties and blame when failing to adhere to service schedules. Interestingly, the time associated with travelling long distances to ANC clinics and ITN retailers and with CBL0137 nmr waiting for services at clinic-level was a major factor of discouragement in the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women because it seriously

affected their domestic responsibilities.

Conclusion: A variety of resource-related factors were shown to affect the health seeking behaviour of pregnant women in rural Tanzania. Thus, accessibility to ANC services was hampered by direct and indirect costs, travel distances and waiting time. Strengthening of user-fee exemption practices and bringing services closer to the users, for example by promoting community-directed control of selected public health services, including Vadimezan solubility dmso IPTp, are urgently needed measures for increasing equity in health services in Tanzania.”
“In this study, a series of (anionic and nonionic) emulsifiers were investigated to prepare acrylic pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA) with core-shell structure by semicontinuous emulsion polymerization. The cloud point of different emulsifiers was characterized to explain the emulsifier effects on the emulsification ability. It was interestingly found that the hybrid emulsifiers (anionic coupling with nonionic) with optimized compositions could enhance the stability of emulsion system and improve the properties of PSA compared with the mono-emulsifier.

031), but also with the

031), but also with the LDN-193189 mouse proximal occlusion of the bronchial tree (p = 0.042). We noted a marginally not significant correlation between arteriosclerosis and metabolic syndrome (p = 0.075), independent from a history of CAD (p = 0.84). Conclusions: Bronchial arteries exhibit only medial calcific sclerosis.

CAD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease do not seem to affect them in terms of atherosclerotic alteration findings or vessel diameter changes. The bronchial resistance to arteriosclerosis might support the mediastinal status quo through their anastomoses, contributing to all its structures, and might be indirect evidence of a different physiological function of the bronchial endothelium, which needs to be further investigated.

Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“While the CA3 cerebellum’s role in motor function is well recognized, the nature of its concurrent role in cognitive function remains considerably less clear. The current consensus paper gathers diverse views on a variety of important roles played by the cerebellum across a range of cognitive and emotional functions. This paper considers the cerebellum in relation to neurocognitive development, language function, working memory, executive function, and the development of cerebellar internal control models and reflects upon some of the ways in which better understanding the cerebellum’s status as a “”supervised learning machine”" can enrich our ability to understand human function and adaptation. As all contributors agree that the cerebellum plays a role in cognition, there is also an agreement that this conclusion remains highly inferential. Many conclusions about the role of the cerebellum in cognition originate from applying known information about cerebellar

contributions to the coordination and quality of movement. These inferences are based on the uniformity of the cerebellum’s compositional infrastructure and its apparent modular organization. There is considerable support for this view, based upon observations of patients with pathology within the cerebellum.”
“Background and Purpose: Surgeons anecdotally report awareness of nontactile sensory cues that compensate for absent haptic feedback in robot-assisted surgery. This study investigates this poorly understood adaptive process by evaluating frequency of in vivo suture A-1155463 supplier damage.

Patients and Methods: Consecutive cases of children undergoing robot-assisted dismembered pyeloplasty were examined. Suture damage was defined as incomplete (i.e., fraying) or complete (i.e., broken) loss of thread integrity and prospectively recorded with clinical data. Suture technique, size, and robotic instruments used for suturing were subjected to post hoc analysis. Statistical analysis was undertaken using appropriate nonparametric tests.

Results: Overall frequency of suture damage was 2.6% among 1135 sutures used in 52 patients.

There is a growing body of evidence implicating serotonin in hepa

There is a growing body of evidence implicating serotonin in hepatic regeneration through altered expression of serotonin receptor subtypes in the liver. This review article provides a brief overview on the current knowledge about the actions of serotonin in liver regeneration.”
“Understanding how energy check details is utilized by the pig, and how the pig responds to changes in dietary energy concentration, is essential information in determining the optimal concentration of dietary energy under farm conditions, which are often highly diverse.

The objective of these experiments was to determine how changes in dietary DE concentration, achieved through graded changes in diet composition, would affect the performance and carcass composition of growing pigs. In Exp. 1, which was conducted in a research facility, 300 pigs (31.1 +/- 2.6 kg) were assigned to diets containing 3.09, 3.24, 3.34, 3.42, or 3.57 Mcal of DE/ kg. Experiment

2, which was conducted at a commercial swine farm, involved 720 pigs (36.8 +/- 5.9 kg) assigned to diets containing 3.12, 3.30, or 3.43 Mcal of DE/ kg. Increased DE concentration was attained by using more wheat, soybean meal, and fat and less barley; true ileal lysine was adjusted as DE increased, and minimal AA: lysine ratios were maintained. In Exp. 1, ADG improved linearly as the energy content of the diet increased (P = 0.03). Feed intake decreased selleck (P < 0.001) and feed efficiency and daily caloric intake improved (P = 0.005) with increased DE content. Variability in growth was not affected by treatment. Carcass index and LM thickness were not affected by increasing dietary DE content; backfat thickness, however, was increased (P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, overall ADG was unaffected by dietary energy content, although

an EGFR inhibitor improvement in growth was observed until the pigs reached approximately 80 kg of BW. Overall feed intake decreased with increasing energy content (P = 0.01), although this was not observed during the initial 6 wk of the experiment. Carcass index, lean yield, and backfat were not affected by increasing dietary energy content, whereas LM thickness tended to increase (P = 0.08). The value per pig was unaffected by increasing dietary energy content in both experiments, and returns above feed costs were reduced. Increasing the energy density of the diet for growing pigs through incremental changes in dietary composition had a variable impact on overall growth performance and carcass quality. Increasing the dietary DE had no effect on variations in BW at the time of marketing.”
“Background: The Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) Trial was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of a low-fat (<= 20% of total energy) or a usual diet in relation to chronic disease risk in postmenopausal women.