In this study, genes that are part of the TTSS apparatus were found in strains isolated from asymptomatic children. Despite considering that they were detected too frequently to be found incidentally, we do not know whether these strains possess a functional TTSS. Blanc-Potard et al. found that Afa/Dr DAEC strains C1845 and IH11128 harbor part of a PAI described for an uropathogenic E. coli strain.
Analogously, some DAEC strains from children could harbor part OSI-906 of a LEE, including part of a TTSS, but not necessarily the complete functional apparatus. Interestingly, TTSS genes were found in strains from children, but not in strains from adults. Many strains from children also belong to some classical EPEC serogroup – again not found in strains from adults – leading us to wonder whether the strains from children may be more closely related to EPEC in evolutionary terms. Although Pexidartinib purchase TTSS has been associated to virulence in
a broad range of Gram-negative CH5183284 nmr bacteria , we have found it in control strains. Even though much emphasis has been given to the role of TTSS in pathogenesis, its presence was recorded in non-pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Sodalis glossinidius. By the late fifties, the development of seroagglutination assays enabled the establishment of the classical groups of EPEC. These serogroup-marked strains were frequently associated with sporadic cases of infantile diarrhea as well as outbreaks . In virtue of the current molecular characterization adopted for typing E. coli strains, 5-Fluoracil purchase nowadays
it is known that some of the so-called classical EPEC serogroups are shared with other diarrheagenic categories [65–67]. The World Health Organization recognized that EPEC comprises strains of 12 O serogroups known as the classical EPEC serogroups: O26, O55, O86, O111, O114, O119, O125,O126, O127, O128, O142 and O158  In this work, we found 30.5% of DAEC isolated from children belonging to serogroups O86, O127, O142 or O158. Serogroup O86 was very frequent, corresponding alone to 20% of DAEC strains isolated from children. This serogroup seems to be widely distributed among different E. coli pathotypes, since it has been found in EAEC , DAEC  and STEC strains . Interestingly, we have not found DAEC strains from adults belonging to EPEC serogroups, reinforcing the differences between DAEC strains isolated from children and adults. Arikawa et al. found that some DAEC strains are able to stimulate IL-8 secretion by epithelial cells and suggested that strains possessing this ability could be implicated in the establishment of diarrhea. The importance of IL-8 stimulus in the pathogenesis of DAEC strains was reinforced by the study of Meraz et al.. In a more recent work Arikawa et al.