We next analysed the effect of bromelain in combination with the cytokine cocktail. Because cytokine cocktail stimulation resulted in the most mature phenotype and stimulation with bromelain lead to a higher IL-12p70 secretion, we were interested to find out whether an additive or synergistic effect could be detected. We also tested bromelain combined with two modified versions of the cytokine cocktail containing less or no PGE2 as it has been stated that PGE2 is responsible for the lack of IL-12p70 production [17, 18]. The phenotype of the cells revealed that all DC populations
stimulated with a combination of bromelain and the cytokine cocktail (original cocktail, ¼ of PGE2 and without PGE2) had a mature phenotype (Fig. 2), PCI-32765 supplier but the population with the least mature phenotype among these was the group that was stimulated with bromelain and the cytokine cocktail without any PGE2 (Fig. 2). The DC populations stimulated with bromelain in combinations with the cytokine cocktail and the cytokine cocktail with ¼ of PGE2 showed an even more mature phenotype compared with cytokine DC, with the highest CD86, CD80, CD83 and CCR7 surface expression (Fig. 2). Interestingly, a synergistic effect was detected on CD83 and CCR7 surface expression when bromelain was added to the original or modified cytokine
cocktail with ¼ PGE2. We also analysed the migratory potential of the generated DC populations but could not detect any clear differences between the populations learn more (data not shown). Removal of PGE2 from the cytokine cocktail resulted in reduced surface levels for most of the markers analysed compared with the original cytokine cocktail (Fig. 2). When ¼ of PGE2 was included in the cocktail, the surface expression was restored (Fig. 2). We also determined the MFI of these Sinomenine markers (Fig. 2B). All populations expressed comparable amounts of CD40. The density of surface CD38 was highest upon treatment with bromelain alone or in combination with the modified cytokine cocktail without PGE2. Treatment
of the cells with the modified cytokine cocktail without PGE2 resulted in lowest surface expression of HLA-DR, similar to that of immature cells. HLA-DR was highest expressed on DC treated with a combination of bromelain and the cytokine cocktail (Fig. 2B). DC stimulated with a combination of bromelain and the cytokine cocktail did only produce higher amounts of IL-12p70 when PGE2 was completely removed from the cocktail (Fig. 3). However, this DC population had a less mature phenotype (Fig. 2). As expected, immature DC and DC stimulated with the cytokine cocktail alone did not produce considerable amounts of IL-12p70. To analyse the functionality of the generated DC populations, we performed allogeneic MLR to assess the T cell stimulatory capacity. As shown in Fig. 4, immature DC had, as expected, the lowest capacity to stimulate allogeneic T cells.