These values are close to those found when other genes have been examined; a similar 7-fold increase in adherence to INT-407 cells was found with a cj1461 (methyltransferase) mutant versus the wild-type strain . Mutants in waaF showed a 14-fold reduction in invasion of INT407 cells compared with the wild type strain . Disruption mutants of adhesin-encoding genes cadF and
flpA exhibited a 72% and 62% reduction in adherence, respectively . Insertion SYN-117 chemical structure mutagenesis of cj0588 encoding the TlyA product caused a significant reduction in adherence to Caco-2 cells in culture of C. jejuni strains 81–176 (decreased to 59% compared with wild type) and 81116 (reduced to 48% compared with wild mTOR activation type) . Results
from our assays were quite similar to these studies, showing a 0.5 to 1.0 log reduction in adherence of the isolate without the CJIE1-family prophage (Table 2). The presence of the prophage therefore makes a substantial contribution to the adherence of the lysogenized bacterium. Though the trend to much higher adherence by isolates carrying the prophage was clear in all experiments, the differences in the adherence of isolates with and without the prophage did not reach statistical significance. This was likely partly due to the inter-experimental variability in the adherence and invasion assays, which has been noted before  and appears to be a characteristic of the assay. Differences in adherence in vivo can be very significant even when cell culture assays demonstrate no difference between strains . It is critically important that the role of the prophage be assessed in a relevant animal model and with functional mutagenesis
studies. Invasion of Caco-2 cells was reduced in tlyA mutants to 56% and 31% of wild-type in C. jejuni strains 81–176 and 81116, respectively . The 16- to 21-fold difference in invasion detected in the isolates with and without the CJIE1-family prophage was similar to this but much less than the 50-fold reduction in invasion of INT-407 cells resulting ADP ribosylation factor from an insertion mutation of cj1461 . However, the cj1461 mutant also resulted in a motility defect, which is known to have profound effects on invasion [14, 15]. In contrast, no gross alterations in motility were seen in C. jejuni isolates with and without the prophage in the present study. The relative numbers of invaded bacteria expressed as a percentage of those adherent at 30 min post-inoculation was higher than seen by Christensen et al. . However, the differences between adherence and invasion of bacteria with and without the CJIE1-family prophage were consistent in all experiments, suggesting that whatever technical differences resulted in the higher %I/A values were also consistent. The measurable differences in adherence and invasion associated with prophage carriage found in this study appear to be STI571 mouse substantiated.