Thus, for example, in 0.25×106 cells/ml suspensions of the marine diatom Thalassiosira rotula in a medium with 200 ng/ml of Arochlor-1248 (a formulation of polychlorinated biphenyls), the biomass concentrated in 60-120 minutes approximately 45% of Arochlor, what meant 90% of the available one, since other 45% was adsorbed on glass walls BMS345541 cell line and 5% remained in the medium . It is known that lipophilic compounds
can be concentrated very quickly by the biomass through hydrophobic repulsion, partition and adsorption mechanisms, but the phenomenon is not necessarily restricted to these processes. Under such conditions, the dose could probably be defined more appropriately as the ratio of total initial effector Q 0 to the present biomass: (7) It can also be pertinent to admit that a part
Q H of the total initial quantity Q 0 of effector is retained by the dead biomass, and another part Q S is metabolically deactivated by the living biomass. The simplest hypothesis consists of accepting that the quantity Q H is proportional to the dead biomass: (8) while Q S is formed through a second order kinetic equation (first in each component), at a rate v Q dependent on the concentrations (or quantities in constant volume systems) SU5402 concentration of living biomass and available effector (X S and Q): (9) The first supposition can be suitable Astemizole with effectors that form covalent bonds with the receptor, or that have a hydrophobic character and tend to be concentrated
by the biomass, as we said before. The second can be applicable to effectors which are transformed into inactive KU-57788 purchase metabolites, or chemical species whose action can be modelled by means of sets of equations (1) to (5). If such suppositions are necessary, dose could be defined as: (10) Whichever definition of dose we establish, hypotheses A1-A5 allow us to determine the biomass at a time instant t as a function of the biomass at (t-Δt) by means of the following balance (supposing an effector that reduces cell viability and growth rate): (11) where mWφ,D are the responses to the dose D, in terms of cell death or r drop, according to equation (1). If the effector is stimulatory in the sense defined in A4 and A5, the signs of the terms mWφ,D should be changed. Results from the dynamic model Using biologically reasonable parametric values and a small time increment (e.g. Δt = 0.005) to minimise the error of the differential approximation, equation (11) allows us to simulate response surfaces as a simultaneous function of dose and time, for different assumptions about the growth and the action of the effector. Without loss of generality we can simplify and disregard the options (8) to (10), that is, we can suppose q H = 0 and q S = 0. Under these conditions it is suitable to distinguish three categories of facts: S1.