(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The Selleck PF-4708671 liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein (LAP) isoform of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP beta) is shown to be a major activator of differentiation-dependent human papillomavirus (HPV) late gene expression, while the liver-enriched inhibitory protein (LIP) isoform negatively regulates late expression. In undifferentiated

cells, LIPs act as dominant-negative repressors of late expression, and upon differentiation, LIP levels are significantly reduced, allowing LAP-mediated activation of the late promoter. Importantly, knockdown of C/EBP beta isoforms blocks activation of late gene expression from complete viral genomes upon differentiation.”

report the first complete genome sequence of Maripa virus identified in 2009 from a patient with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in French Guiana. Maripa virus corresponds Ruboxistaurin order to a new variant of the Rio Mamore virus species in the Bunyaviridae family, genus Hantavirus.”
“Traditional developmental neurotoxicity tests performed in vivo are costly, time-consuming and utilize a large number of animals. In order to address these inefficiencies, in vitro models of neuronal development have been used in a first tier screening approach for developmental neurotoxicity hazard identification. One commonly used endpoint for assessing developmental neurotoxicity in vitro is measurement of neurite outgrowth. This biological process is amenable to high-throughput measurement using high content imaging (HCI) based methodologies. To date, a majority of HCI studies of neurite outgrowth

have focused on measurements of total neurite outgrowth without examining whether stereotypic neuronal growth patterns are disrupted or whether specific sub-populations of neurites (i.e. axons or dendrites) are selectively affected. The present study describes the development and implementation of two HCI based analysis methods for assessing chemical effects on neuronal maturation. These methods utilize the stereotypical growth pattern of primary rat cortical neurons in culture (i.e. the Staging Method), Tenoxicam as well as the differential cytoplasmic distribution of beta(III)-tubulin and MAP2 (i.e. the Subtraction Method), to quantify inhibition of neurite initiation, axon outgrowth and secondary neurite (or dendrite) outgrowth in response to chemical exposure. Results demonstrate that these distinct maturational processes are differentially affected by pharmacological compounds (K252a, Na3VO4, Bis-1) known to inhibit neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, a group of known developmental neurotoxicants also differentially affected the growth of axons and secondary neurites in primary cortical culture.

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