Authors’ contributions GD, CS and MDR conceived the study DC, GD

Authors’ contributions GD, CS and MDR conceived the study. DC, GD and CS drafted the manuscript. GD, AM, DC

CDC, VV and VDG performed experiments. All authors read and approved the manuscript.”
“Background There are three manifestations of influenza in humans: seasonal, avian and pandemic influenza. Seasonal influenza is caused by influenza A or B viruses which infect 5-15% of the human population every year [1, 2]. Symptoms vary from mild respiratory complaints to fatal respiratory distress due to multiple organ failur. Symptoms depend largely, however, on the health and immune status of the infected individual Crenolanib cell line and the pathogenicity of the specific virus involved. While avian influenza A viruses cause sporadic zoonotic infections in humans, that do not spread efficiently among

humans [1], these infections may result in respiratory disease manifestations that range from mild to fatal, which among other variables largely depends on the virulence of the virus involved. Although most seasonal influenza virus infections are self-limiting, they do cause a considerable burden of disease that may be aggravated by complications of the infection [3]. Patients with chronic illness are particularly at risk of developing these complications when suffering from (seasonal) influenza, like the observed PF-02341066 mouse increased BAY 73-4506 molecular weight risk for developing cardiovascular disease during or shortly after influenza virus infection [4]. This observation is supported by the results of two intervention FAD studies which

showed a risk reduction of myocardial infarction after influenza vaccination, which later was confirmed by a meta-analysis carried out among 292,383 patients. This analysis showed significant reductions in myocardial infarction, all-cause mortality, and major adverse cardiac events in the influenza vaccinated groups [5–7]. However, the etiological pathway and the frequency by which influenza predisposes for clinically relevant thrombotic disease has yet to be determined. Current data suggest that influenza virus infection causes an unbalanced coagulation manifested by a procoagulant state (for review see [8–11]). Indications for this increased clotting tendency have come from clinical, experimental mouse and in vitro data. Clinical reports range from mild increased coagulation and fibrinolysis markers such as von Willebrand factor (VWF) and D-dimer levels, to disseminated intravascular coagulation observed in severe avian influenza [12–14]. Experimental mouse data indicate a procoagulant state characterized by increased thrombin generation, fibrin deposition, and an impaired fibrinolysis [15, 16]. However, as the mouse is not a natural host to influenza virus, mouse influenza models use mouse-adapted influenza viruses which cause a disease quite different from that of human influenza [17].

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