2 mm) was significantly higher in non-responder group (p = 0 038)

2 mm) was significantly higher in non-responder group (p = 0.038). Among 70 patients in 2nd study population, 45 patients were responder (64.2%), and the proportion of patients who had larger parathyroid glands than cutoff value was significantly higher in nonresponder group (responsder vs nonresponder 60.5 vs 87.0%, p = 0.028). Conclusions: Measurement of parathyroid gland diameters with CT scan was useful to predict the response of cinacalcet therapy. KURASHIGE MAHIRO1,2, HANAOKA KAZUSHIGE1, IMAMURA MINAKO2, UDAGAWA TAKASHI1, KAWAGUCHI YOSHINDO1,3, HASEGAWA TOSHIO1,3, HOSOYA TATSUO1, YOKOO TAKASHI1, MAEDA

SHIRO2 1Division of Kidney and Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University, School of Medicine, Minato, Tokyo, Japan; 2Laboratory for Endocrinology, Metabolism and Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor Kidney Diseases, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan; 3Department of Medicine, FK228 cell line Kanagawa Prefectural Shiomidai Hospital, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan Introduction: Autosomal

Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a common hereditary kidney disorder, and most of its heritability could be explained by mutations in two genes, PKD1 and PKD2 in populations of European descent. However little is known about Asian ADPKD including Japanese. To elucidate the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of ADPKD in Japanese populations, we performed a comprehensive search for mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 in 180 Japanese ADPKD patients from 161 unrelated Anacetrapib families. Methods: We screened the entire coding regions and their flanking regions of the PKD1/PKD2 by direct sequencing, and evaluated candidates for causal variants by subsequent in-silico and/or bio-analyses. We also searched for large genomic rearrangements within PKD1/PKD2 loci by using quantitative PCR. Results: We identified 111 mutations within 134 families (detection rate = 83.2%), including 88 PKD1 mutations (48 truncating, 6 atypical splice, 29 missense and 5 in-frame mutations) in 96 families, and 23 PKD2 mutations (18 truncating, 1

atypical splice and 3 missense mutations and 1 large deletion) in 38 families. Patients with PKD2 mutations account for 23.6% of all Japanese ADPKD families in this study. Seventy-four out of the 111 mutations have not been reported previously. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline was significantly faster in patients with PKD1 mutations than in those with PKD2 mutations (−3.25 and −2.08 ml·min−1·year−1 for PKD1 and PKD2, respectively, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Mutations within PKD1 and PKD2 can be linked to most of the cases of Japanese ADPKD, and the renal function decline was faster in patients with PKD1 mutations than in those with PKD2 mutations also in the Japanese ADPKD. We also found that PKD2 mutations were more frequent in Japanese ADPKD than that in European or American ADPKD.

These data demonstrate that NK-cell subsets are able to modify th

These data demonstrate that NK-cell subsets are able to modify their phenotype under certain conditions. Consequently, before performing functional assays of CXCR3− and CXCR3+ NK cells, sorting Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor of the two subsets was necessary. We previously reported that sorted human CD56dim and CD56bright NK-cell

subsets differ in IL-21-dependent proliferation 31. In order to investigate if this also holds true for murine NK-cell subsets, we determined the proliferation of sorted CXCR3− and CXCR3+ splenic NK-cell subsets in response to activation with IL-21 and/or IL-15 in [3H]thymidine and CFSE assays (Fig. 4). Upon stimulation, CXCR3+ NK cells displayed a stronger proliferative response than CXCR3− NK cells, regardless

of the combination of stimulating cytokines. Both IL-15 and IL-21 alone had comparable PF-562271 order effects on CXCR3+ NK cells, whereas CXCR3− NK cells proliferated poorly when stimulated with IL-21. In contrast, CXCR3− NK cells proliferated well in response to IL-15. As measured with [3H]thymidine, the combination of IL-15 and IL-21 resulted in drastically increased proliferation of both subsets, especially in CXCR3+ NK cells (Fig. 4B). This additive effect was not clearly detectable in CFSE assays where 7-AAD− NK cells were analyzed to exclude apoptotic cells. In contrast to CXCR3− NK cells, however, almost all CXCR3+ NK cells responded to stimulation with IL-15 and IL-21 alone or in combination. In order to investigate if murine CXCR3− and CXCR3+ NK cells display differential cytotoxic ability like human CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells, standard 4h 51Cr-release assays and CD107a assays were performed (Fig. 5). Cytotoxic

activity of CXCR3− NK cells against YAC-1 target cells was twice as high as CXCR3+ NK-cell-mediated cytotoxicity (Fig. 5A). Although CXCR3− NK cells also degranulated stronger than CXCR3+ NK cells, a relatively high proportion of the latter subset was also CD107a+ (Fig. 5B). We further analyzed degranulation of sorted CXCR3+ NK cells and discriminated neCXCR3− NK cells from NK cells that Dichloromethane dehalogenase maintained CXCR3 on their surface (stable; sCXCR3+), revealing that NK cells that downregulated CXCR3 expression displayed stronger degranulation than sCXCR3+ NK cells (Fig. 5C). Strongly reduced percentages of degranulating NK cells were measured when using negatively sorted NK cells that had no contact with anti-NKp46 antibody (data not shown). As human CD56bright NK cells are known to produce higher amounts of cytokines such as IFN-γ than CD56dim NK cells, cytokine production of sorted murine CXCR3− and CXCR3+ NK cells was determined both on mRNA and protein levels (Fig. 6) 14, 15. Upon stimulation with PMA/ionomycin or IL-12 and IL-18 (15 h), mRNA levels of MIP-1α, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were higher in CXCR3+ as compared with CXCR3− NK cells (Fig. 6A).

As first primary antibodies against CD45RO, Neuropilin-1, LAG-3,

As first primary antibodies against CD45RO, Neuropilin-1, LAG-3, CTLA-4, Venetoclax and CD62L were

used for 30 min incubation followed by washing and incubation with secondary goat anti-mouse IgG FITC-conjugated Ab. Then, the cells were blocked with 10% mouse serum and goat anti-mouse Fab. After a permeabilization step, the second primary mAb against Foxp3 was applied for 30 min, and after washing, the cells were incubated with biotinylated goat anti-mouse Fab Ab, followed by Streptavidin-PE. Finally, the slides were washed and mounted in Shandon medium. Total RNA was isolated from MACS purified CD4+ Treg cells decidual and peripheral blood paired samples (n = 10) as well as from PBMC from non-pregnant women (n = 10) learn more using acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform method.12 The isolated total RNA samples were subjected to real-time quantitative RT-PCR (Perkin Elmer Gene Amp/RNA PCR kit; Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for analysis of the level

of mRNA expression of Foxp3 and a panel of the following cytokines: IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, TNFα, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and TGFβ1. The specific primers and probes are described elsewhere.12 The following Foxp3 primers and probes were used: forward primer 5′-GCATGTTTGCCTTCTTCAGAAAC; reverse primer 5′-TGTAGGGTTGGAACACCTGCTG; and probe 5′-AGCGAGAAGGGGGCTGTGTGT. For quantification of gene expression between paired peripheral and decidual samples, the MACS purified decidual and peripheral CD4+ CD25+ and CD4+ CD25− cells were prepared Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase from equal starting numbers of PBMC and DMC. As a positive control of the RT-PCR reactions, we used PMA-Ionomycin stimulated PBMC.12 All sample analyses were normalized to an internal control using S18 rRNA. All results were expressed as mean ± SD. One-way anova and Newman–Keuls post hoc test were used to compare non-paired groups, and Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed for matched pairs using statsoft version 6 (StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, OK, USA). Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. To assess the in situ distribution of Treg cells at the materno-fetal

interface, we performed double immunoperoxidase staining with monoclonal antibodies against CD4 and Foxp3. To detect the Foxp3 protein expression, we used 236A/E7 mAb, known to label functional suppressor/Treg cells.37 Both CD4+ and Foxp3+ single positive- as well as double positive CD4+ Foxp3+ cells were found in decidua (Fig. 1a–c). As can be seen in representative photomicrographs illustrated in Fig. 1a–c, CD4+ Foxp3+ cells were constitutively present in human decidua. This is the first demonstration in situ of CD4 and Foxp3 stained cells in decidua. As can be seen, they are very small, displaying the morphology of small lymphocytes with large nucleus and very scarce cytoplasm. They could be found dispersed between decidual stromal cells or in the vicinity of blood vessels (Fig. 1a).

Highly permeable transparent, transparent polyurethane or gauze d

Highly permeable transparent, transparent polyurethane or gauze dressings are all appropriate for use on exit sites of central venous lines for use in haemodialysis. (Level I evidence) Long-term central venous line dressings should be changed weekly or sooner if soiled or no longer intact. (Level II evidence) (Suggestions are based on Level III and IV

evidence) Chlorhexidine impregnated dressings should be used to reduce BMS-907351 research buy catheter related bacteraemia compared with standard dressings. Preferably a transparent dressing should be used to protect the exit site as it allows for clear visibility and assessment of the site. If there is bleeding or oozing, it is suggested a dry dressing is used until this is resolved. It is suggested the dressing be changed on a weekly basis to reduce irritation of the skin and minimize the introduction of foreign agents. The dressing should be changed sooner if it becomes soiled or loose. It is suggested adequate hand hygiene is maintained with the use of alcohol based hand rub or other agent if contraindicated. Aseptic technique should be maintained at all times when accessing or dressing the central venous site.

It is suggested that this guideline is used in conjunction with the KHA-CARI guideline on prevention of dialysis catheter infection. We recommend application of either topical agents or intraluminal lock solutions

for the learn more reduction of exit-site infection and catheter-related bacteraemia. Options of topical agents include mupirocin 2% ointment and polysporin. Intraluminal lock agents include both antibiotic based and non-antibiotic-based solutions. Ideal antibiotics and optimal doses are yet to be defined. (Level 1 evidence) (Suggestions are based on Level III and IV evidence) Basic care of catheter management should be reinforced Resveratrol in every dialysis unit. An aseptic protocol has been shown to reduce CRI. Choice of topical agents and/or intraluminal lock solutions should be unit-based, with consideration given to the availability, safety, and costs of the agents used. There are no studies to-date comparing the efficacy of topical agents versus intraluminal lock solutions, or the use of both topical agents and intraluminal ALS together in reduction of CRI. There is thus insufficient evidence to recommend one over the other. The potential emergence of antimicrobial resistance remains a concern. Use of either strategy should be considered in patients who rely on long-term tunnelled-catheter, have previous infective complications and/or have prosthetic devices. No recommendations possible based on Level I or II evidence. (Suggestions are based on Level III and IV evidence) Catheter removal should be the first consideration in treatment of CRI.

[8] Results obtained

[8] Results obtained www.selleckchem.com/screening/kinase-inhibitor-library.html from studies of experimental animal models of autoimmune disease and inflammation provide the basis of a hypothesis that addresses three main properties of

NKT cells during such responses (Table 1). First, type I NKT cells can be either pathogenic or protective. Second, type I NKT cells have a greater propensity to be more pathogenic than protective. Third, type II NKT cells function predominantly to protect from inflammation and autoimmune disease. A test of this hypothesis requires that the factors and mechanisms that give rise to these outcomes in vivo are determined. It is anticipated that the identification of the molecular and cellular factors that drive these mechanisms will facilitate the development of novel immunotherapeutic protocols to prevent and treat inflammation and autoimmune disease. Hence, the objectives of this review are: (i) to provide

novel insight into how type I and type II NKT cells may cross-talk with other immune cells to regulate immune responses, and (ii) to determine how such analyses may enhance the success of future clinical trials of type I and type II NKT cell antagonists in inflammation and autoimmune disease. First, find more we highlight recent clinical and experimental advances in our understanding of the lipid antigens, inflammatory milieu, innate-like mechanisms and cellular interactions that regulate the activation and interactions of NKT cell subsets. Next, we discuss the rationale for why the application of several novel techniques to analyses Tryptophan synthase of NKT cell movement and function in vivo may provide more insight into the design of improved clinical trials of autoimmune disease. The NKT cells express T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) characteristic

of conventional T cells and several cell surface proteins characteristic of NK cells, such as CD56/161(humans) and NK1.1 (mice).[2, 3, 5] NKT cells are generally reactive to lipid antigens presented by CD1d MHC class I like molecules.[2-15] Depending on the target tissue, different types of APCs including dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages (Mϕ), B cells, thymocytes, adipocytes and hepatocytes, can express CD1d molecules and activate NKT cells. In this review, we focus on analyses of CD1d-mediated responses of the type I and type II NKT cell subsets. Notwithstanding, it should be kept in mind that additional MHC class I like molecules such as CD1a, CD1b, CD1c and CD1e, as well as MR1, are expressed on APCs and can activate various subsets of T cells. The latter types of CD1-restricted T-cell subsets are not discussed here. The developmental mechanisms involved in the commitment and maturation of NKT cells employ transcription factors and genes distinct from and shared by both MHC-restricted T cells and NK cell lineages.

While the AIRE expression in β cells did induce TRA expression, w

While the AIRE expression in β cells did induce TRA expression, when compared with thymic medullary epithelial cells, the authors found minor overlap in the

gene expression patterns. This suggests a cell specific aspect to the expressed AIRE and that AIRE has the general ability to promote the TRA expression regardless of where it may be expressed 34. Prompted by our in vitro observations, ALK inhibitor we generated a panel of chimeric mice to test whether the ectopic expression of AIRE through transfer of transduced BM can influence the development of EAE. As previously published, we confirmed that the ectopic expression of MOG following transplantation of BM transduced by retrovirus encoding Mog prevented EAE development 29. While transplantation of Aire-transduced BM did not completely protect mice from EAE development, there was significant retardation in the induction of EAE compared with control groups. In our earlier studies with ectopic expression of MOG, we observed evidence of thymic deletion of MOG35–55-specific T cells 29. We predict that a similar mechanism may also be active here but this needs to be confirmed. While the ectopic gene expression in our system

is not restricted to any particular cell lineage due to the ubiquitous nature of the retroviral promoter, dendritic cells would be considered the main BM-derived instigator Midostaurin cell line of tolerance 41, 42 through uptake and presentation of antigen 43, 44. However, it has been shown that if dendritic cells can directly express antigen, then tolerance to that antigen can also ensue 45. Given

this, we suggest that MOG expressed within dendritic cells derived from transduced BM could drive tolerance within the thymus through deletion and/or much possibility through the generation of T regulatory cells 46. Our model will also promote the ectopic AIRE expression in the range of peripherally destined cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells, and thus cannot be overlooked at this stage as another potential avenue for mechanisms capable of promoting tolerance. Finally, we cannot rule out the possibility that the ectopic expression of Aire may be exerting its effect on EAE independently of TRA expression. AIRE is also known to transcriptionally activate or repress non-TRA, such as cytokine and cytokine receptors 47 and thus could influence immune responses. Whether a similar effect is occurring in our model of ectopically expressed Aire is not known at this point. Autoimmune diseases remain a major clinical challenge and current treatments are non-curative and often involve non-specific immunosuppressive regimes. The prospect of developing strategies aimed at delivering antigen-specific tolerance would be a major advance in this field.

33 The overall utility of this type of assessment requires more i

33 The overall utility of this type of assessment requires more investigation and remains experimental at this stage. Crossmatching is a vital tool in assessing the immune compatibility of a particular donor/recipient pairing. A positive T-cell CDC crossmatch Peptide 17 supplier would usually mean that a particular pairing should not proceed. In some cases, a desensitization protocol may allow such a transplant to occur, avoiding hyperacute

or early acute rejection albeit with inferior long-term graft outcomes compared with patients who are not sensitized to their donor. The advent of flow crossmatching and Luminex assays has allowed detection of lower titre but potentially clinically relevant anti-HLA antibodies by approximately 10-fold. Further studies are required to better GSK126 price define the significance of very low-level DSAbs, non-complement fixing antibodies, IgM antibodies

and non-HLA antibodies as well as the importance of assessing T cellular sensitization. The authors’ view is that the tried and trusted technique of CDC crossmatching remains essential and should be coupled with a determination of the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies by Luminex. With these two assays the role of flow crossmatching is less clear and is rarely helpful in decision making. The ideal future crossmatch will be highly sensitive in identifying DSAbs and provide accurate prediction of the functional significance of the antibody. This will allow transplant physicians to confidently proceed with a transplant in the face of a clinically irrelevant DSAb while providing clear prognostic information in the setting of more serious C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) antibodies. We thank Dr Kevan Polkinghorne for his critical appraisal of the manuscript. “
“Date written: Jan 2008 Final submission: June 2008 No recommendations possible based on Level I or II evidence (Suggestions are based on Level III and IV evidence) Potential

living donors should have their urinary protein excretion measured using either a 24-hour urine collection (daily excretion) or a spot urine sample (protein/creatinine ratio). Short- and long-term living kidney donor outcomes need to be closely monitored. The aim of this guideline is to review the available literature on the potential long-term risks of donating a kidney in the presence of pre-donation proteinuria and to develop suggestions for management of these potential donors. The justification for performing living kidney donation is based on the benefits of the procedure on the recipient’s health and on the psyche of the donor through the act of altruism, outweighing the short- and long-term adverse outcomes on the donor. In the medical assessment of the potential donor, a critical estimation is made of their future risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. If the risk is predicted to be too great then the living kidney donation does not proceed.

A role for TGF-β in the generation of pathogenic Th17 cells in vi

A role for TGF-β in the generation of pathogenic Th17 cells in vivo has been suggested, given that local blockade of TGF-β at the time of immunization halts EAE progression [38]. However, long before the dawn of Th17 cells, TGF-β was lauded for its suppressive capabilities. Amelioration of inflammatory disease

states including EAE and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were easily achieved after intravenous administration of TGF-β1 [70, 71]. Although it has been shown that Th17 cells can develop in the absence of TGF-β [72], numerous studies have shown a requirement for TGF-β [69, 73-75], Nonetheless, given the autoimmune complications associated with complete Gefitinib TGF-β deficiency, and the fact that TGF-β is produced by every

cell in the body, there are no circumstances in which Th17 cells could arise in vivo in the complete absence of TGF-β. Therefore, the exact role of TGF-β is of importance, be that by providing a positive differentiation signal, or by suppressing other transcription factors such as T-bet and GATA-3, which would direct an activated T cell away from the Th17 lineage. McGeachy et al. [70] convincingly demonstrated that Th17 cells can have different pathogenic capabilities depending on their route to IL-17 production. PLP-primed T cells were only encephalitogenic when exposed to IL-23 prior to transfer, whereas T cells polarized in the presence of TGF-β and IL-6 failed to induce disease when transferred directly into the cerebral ventricular space [73]. This approach also circumvented Selleck LY2157299 the potentially different migratory capabilities of polarized Th17 subsets by direct administration of the cells through the blood brain barrier [76]. Thus, despite IL-17A expression in both subsets, only T cells primed in the presence cAMP of IL-23 were “licensed to kill”. Why should IL-17A-expressing cells be so different in their capacity to induce disease? One answer could be that IL-17A is simply a “read-out” for T-cell activation in some circumstances, and the true culprit(s) behind Th17-associated pathogenesis are induced simultaneously with IL-17A by IL-23, but not by TGF-β and IL-6. A keen observation was made in the study by McGeachy

et al. [73] that a minority of the Th17 cells induced by TGF-β and IL-6 simultaneously expressed IL-10, and this was proposed to explain the lack of pathology observed after passive transfer of these cells [73]. IL-10 production may also explain why others have witnessed a reduced pathogenicity of Th17 cells induced by TGF-β and IL-6 [77]. Although IL-10 might indeed contribute to the reduced pathogenic potential of Th17 cells generated in this way, it is perhaps more likely that IL-23 induces another pathogenic cytokine and/or population of activated T cells. We and others were able to show that GM-CSF is in fact induced by IL-23, and that this cytokine is an absolute requirement for the encephalitogenicity of a T cell [78, 79].

It is generally thought that tolerogenic treatments, including to

It is generally thought that tolerogenic treatments, including tolDC therapy, will have the greatest chance of success if they are applied early on in the disease process [101]. However, for safety reasons, new experimental therapies are being tested in patients with established disease who have failed other treatments and have a poor prognosis. Whether tolerogenic strategies can be successful under these conditions remains to be seen, and an obvious risk is

that further development of tolDC therapy may not take place if initial trials show no or little efficacy. A related concern, therefore, is how to measure efficacy. The goal of tolDC therapy is to induce immune tolerance, but this may take time to develop Selleckchem Caspase inhibitor and may not necessarily result in an immediate reduction of inflammation or other chronic disease symptoms. It has been observed that some immunomodulatory therapies that were ineffective in the short term appeared to provide benefits to RA patients in the longer term [102]. Therefore, the timing of the end-points as well CT99021 as what outcomes are being measured need careful consideration; current outcome measures for clinical trials in RA measure the consequences of inflammation, but this is unlikely to be an appropriate marker for the short-term ‘success’ of tolDC therapy. What is badly needed

is the development of appropriate biomarkers of tolerance induction, which could then be used to monitor and guide tolerogenic therapies such as tolDC. Collecting data on expression of tolerance-related genes and the function of relevant immune subsets pre- and post-treatment will be essential for the design of a robust and quantifiable biomarker set. Such a set would

enable us to measure the short-term therapeutic response in future tolerogenic therapy trials and, if standardized, would enable comparisons between different trials. Over the last decade a variety of methods have been developed to generate tolDC in the laboratory. The characteristics of these tolDC have Thymidylate synthase been defined extensively in in-vitro studies and their therapeutic potential has been demonstrated in experimental animal models of autoimmune disease. The field has now moved into a new era, translating these findings towards clinical application of tolDC. The first clinical trials have indicated that tolDC administration is tolerated and appears safe, and further studies now need to be conducted to establish their efficacy in treating autoimmune disorders, including RA, type 1 diabetes and MS. A major drawback of tolDC therapy is that it is a highly customized ‘bespoke’ therapy, which not only makes it expensive but also limits its application to centres that have appropriate facilities and are specialized in cellular therapies.

The meta-analysis may identify clinical subgroups that benefit th

The meta-analysis may identify clinical subgroups that benefit the most from IVIg treatment. The inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: ≥ 4 confirmed early miscarriages, at least three consecutive after a birth and ≥ 3 miscarriages with present

partner. Following a positive pregnancy test, serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (s-HCG) was measured twice in 2 days. Treatment with either IVIg or placebo was initiated if s-HCG increased by at least 30%. IVIg treatment doses were simplified to either a high or low dose according to pre-pregnancy weight. Similar doses SCH772984 of 5% human albumin were used in the placebo group. Studies have shown that pregnant and non-pregnant RM patients may have elevated levels of NK cells [17, 18]. Furthermore, Atezolizumab ic50 there have been a number of studies showing that NK cells, such as CD56+, decline in RM patients treated with IVIg [17-22]. Heilmann et al. conducted a study that showed a correlation between the decline in NK cells and pregnancy

outcomes. The results of this study found that the number of NK cells (CD3−, CD56+ and CD16+) declined in women who gave birth after IVIg treatment [23]. In the future, identifying immune biomarkers that characterize RM patients who may benefit from IVIg therapy is worth investigating. There is evidence from placebo-controlled trials to suggest that IVIg improves pregnancy outcomes in secondary RM. However, large heterogeneity in patient populations and dosing regimens has been observed in previously conducted trials in RM. Therefore, our study will hopefully provide decisive data on the efficacy

of IVIg treatment in secondary RM. O. B. Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase C. thanks Dr Henriette S. Nielsen, Dr Elisabeth C. Larsen and Dr Pia Egerup for help in the conduction of the trial of IVIg and performing the meta-analysis. Further thanks go to Mrs Louise Lunoee, Mrs Lisbeth Egestad and Mrs Karen Kirchheiner for assisting in performing the trial. The Danish Council for Independent Research funded the trial. O. B. C. would also like to thank Meridian HealthComms Ltd for providing medical writing services. O. B. C. has no conflicts of interest to disclose. “
“Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics and Biology Department, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA We studied diverse antigen binding in hosts and the outcome of parasitism. We used captive-bred F1 descendants of feral rock pigeons (Columba livia) challenged with blood-feeding flies (Hippoboscidae) and a protozoan parasite (Haemoproteus). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunoblots were used to test (i) whether pre-infection IgY antigen binding predicts parasite fitness and (ii) whether antigen binding changes after infection.