Alternative formulations have been proposed to overcome these dra

Alternative formulations have been proposed to overcome these drawbacks. The objective of this study was

to evaluate process-related variables like hydration and sonication time, rotation speed of evaporation flask, and the effects of charge-inducing agent and centrifugation on zidovudine entrapment and release from niosomes. Formulation of zidovudine niosomes was optimized by altering the proportions of Tween, Z-IETD-FMK supplier Span and cholesterol. The effect of process-related variables like hydration time, sonication time, charge-inducing agent, centrifugation and rotational speed of evaporation flask on zidovudine entrapment and release from niosomes was evaluated. The effect of changes in osmotic shock and viscosity were also evaluated. Non-sonicated niosomes were in the size range of 2-3.5 mu m and sonicated

niosomes formulated with Tween 80 and dicetylphosphate (DCP) had a mean diameter of 801 nm. Zidovudine niosomes formulated with Tween 80 entrapped high amounts of drug and the addition of DCP enhanced drug release for a longer time (88.72% over 12 h). The mechanism of release from Tween 80 formulation was the Fickian type and obeyed first-order release kinetics. Niosomes can be formulated by proper adjustment of process parameters to enhance zidovudine entrapment and sustainability of release. These improvements in zidovudine selleck screening library formulation may be useful in developing a more effective AIDS therapy.”
“Study Design. Multicenter ambispective cohort analysis.

Objective. The

purpose of this study is to determine whether applying Enneking’s principles to surgical management of primary bone tumors of the spine significanti find more decreases local recurrence and/or mortality.

Summary of Background Data. Oncologic management of primary tumors of spine has historically been inconsistent, controversial, and open to individual interpretation.

Methods. A multicenter ambispective cohort analysis from 4 tertiary care spine referral centers was done. Patients were analyzed in 2 cohorts, “”Enneking Appropriate”" (EA), surgical margin as recommended by Enneking, and “”Enneking Inappropriate”" (EI), surgical margin not recommended by Enneking. Benign tumors were not included in mortality analysis.

Results. Two cohorts represented an analytic dataset with 147 patients, 86 male, average age 46 years (range: 10-83). Median follow-up was 4 (2-7) years in the EA and 6 (5.5-15.5) years in the EI. Seventy-one patients suffered at least 1 local recurrence during the study, 57 of 77 in the EI group and 14 of 70 in the EA group. EI surgical approach caused higher risk of first local recurrence (P < 0.0001). There were 48 deaths in total; 29 in the EI group and 19 in the EA. There was a strong correlation between the first local recurrence and mortality with an odds ratio of 4.69, (P < 0.0001). EI surgical approach resulted in a higher risk of mortality with a hazard ratio of 3.10, (P = 0.0485) compared to EA approach.

We analyzed 14 protein spots of crude

proteins from B do

We analyzed 14 protein spots of crude

proteins from B. dorsalis larvae post-treatment with trichlorphon in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis through mass spectrometry and protein sequencing. We found functional proteins that are responsible for signal transduction (pkaap and dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase), immunity (hemolectin), synthesis and decomposition (twinstar, cathepsin B, RE66325p), oxidative stress metabolism ( glutathione S transferase and CG7320), VX 770 energy metabolism (Act57B), and cytoskeleton formation (actin). These proteins appear to be involved in the resistance response to trichlorphon.”
“Pronounced magnetic-field- and bias-sensitive features of the transport properties of a Fe/SiO2/p-Si hybrid structure in planar geometry at temperature variation are investigated. Comparative analysis of two Fe/SiO2/p-Si samples, one with a continuous

Fe film and the other with two electrodes formed from a Fe layer and separated by a micron gap, shows that these features are due to the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) transition with a Schottky Nepicastat Hydroxylase inhibitor barrier near the interface between SiO2 and p-Si. Resistance of such a MIS transition depends

exponentially on temperature and bias. In the structure with a continuous ferromagnetic film, the competition between conductivities of the MIS transition and the Fe layer results in the effect of current channel switching between the Fe layer and a semiconductor substrate. Within certain limits, this process can be controlled by a bias current and a magnetic field. Positive magnetoresistance of the structures at high temperatures is determined, most likely, by disorder-induced weak localization. In the structure with the gap, negative magnetoresistance is observed at certain temperature and bias. Its occurrence should be attributed to an inversion layer formed in the semiconductor near the SiO2/p-Si interface when MIS transition is in the inversion regime. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Metronomic administration of c

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Metronomic administration of chlorambucil was well tolerated, and 70% of dogs had partial remission or stable disease. Metronomic administration of chlorambucil may be a treatment option for dogs with TCC. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013;242;1534-1538)”
“Two-dimensional system with Rashba spin-orbit interaction,

named as Rashba film with transverse confinement is considered. Spin dependent behavior of the Rashba film is investigated through two possible, even and odd, solutions. The spin dependent eigenfunctions, eigenvalues, and quantization conditions are derived, and energy dispersion relations are determined. Even and odd solutions are characterized and a mapping between them is demonstrated. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3319668]“
“Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the effect on periodontal health of ultrasonic versus manual scaling of the

lower second HSP990 datasheet molar (L2M) root surface following surgical extraction of mesioangular lower third molars (L3M).

Study design. Randomized single-blind clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of ultrasonic scaling of the L2M (experimental group) and manual scaling and root planing (control group) after surgical extraction of the corresponding L3M.

Results. Forty-three subjects were enrolled, 69.8% completing the study. The postoperative bony defect on the distal surface of the L2M was significantly reduced for both treatment groups (P = .001). Despite a higher reduction of intrabony defect being observed in the ultrasonic group, the difference was not significant

(P = .17) at 6 months. Furthermore, there was also no statistically significant correlation (P > .05) between the postoperative pocket depth and the treatment group (ultrasonic or manual).

Conclusions. Pocket depth and depth of the intrabony defect were similar in both experimental AZD8055 chemical structure and control groups. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;107:e11-e19)”
“The copolymer of pyrrole and aniline, poly(pyrrole-co-aniline), has been prepared by chemical oxidation of corresponding monomer mixtures with ammonium peroxysulfate. Techniques of FTIR, SEM-EDS, and BET surface area measurement were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the copolymer. The electrochemical properties of the copolymer were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicated that poly(pyrrole-co-aniline) was about 100-300 nm in diameter and showed better electrochemical capacitive performance than polypyrrole and polyaniline. The specific capacitance of the copolymer electrode was 827 F/g at a current of 8 mA/cm(2) in 1 mol/L Na(2)SO(4) electrolyte. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Patients with positive preoperative ultrasonography had a higher

Patients with positive preoperative ultrasonography had a higher rate of repeated surgery than those with negative preoperative ultrasonography (27% vs 4.7%, P = .003). There was no difference in postoperative complication rates. No patients with negative preoperative ultrasonography and an ultrasound report stating specifically “”no suspicious lymph nodes”" required repeated surgery.

Conclusions: Negative preoperative ultrasonography with specific lymph node evaluation predicts a low risk of needing early reoperation. Positive preoperative ultrasonography may be a marker for more aggressive disease and the best predictor of the need for additional surgery in the future. (Endocr

Pract. 2012;18:403-409)”
“Background: AZD7762 Coagulopathic bleeding is a leading cause of in-hospital death after injury. A recently proposed transfusion strategy calls for early and aggressive frozen plasma transfusion to bleeding trauma patients, thus addressing trauma-associated coagulopathy (TAC) by transfusing clotting factors (CFs). This strategy may dramatically improve survival of bleeding trauma patients. However, other studies suggest

that early TAC occurs by protein C activation and is independent of CF deficiency. This study investigated whether CF deficiency is associated with early TAC.

Methods: This is a prospective observational cohort study of severely traumatized patients (Injury Severity Score >= 16) admitted shortly after injury, receiving minimal fluids and no prehospital CP868596 blood. Blood was assayed for CF levels, thromboelastography, and routine coagulation tests. Critical CF deficiency was defined

as <= 30% activity of any CF.

Results: Of 110 patients, 22 (20%) had critical CF deficiency: critically low factor V level was evident in all these patients. International normalized ratio, activated prothrombin time, and, thromboelastography were abnormal in 32%, 36%, and 35%, respectively, of patients with any critically low CF. Patients with critical CF deficiency suffered more Momelotinib severe injuries, were more acidotic, received more blood transfusions, and showed a trend toward higher mortality (32% vs. 18%, p = 0.23). Computational modeling showed coagulopathic patients had pronounced delays and quantitative deficits in generating thrombin.

Conclusions: Twenty percent of all severely injured patients had critical CF deficiency on admission, particularly of factor V. The observed factor V deficit aligns with current understanding of the mechanisms underlying early TAC. Critical deficiency of factor V impairs thrombin generation and profoundly affects hemostasis.”
“Background and objectives Our objective was to compare the frequency of adverse events (AEs) due to any of the 4 types of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) prepared and delivered by the French Blood Establishment (EFS) over a 10-year period. Surveillance of AEs and vigilance was performed according to a homogeneous policy.

01 145 studies initially identified, 22 (including 8050 participa

01 145 studies initially identified, 22 (including 8050 participants) met inclusion criteria. Results indicated that there was a significant albeit modest association Microbiology inhibitor between alcohol dependence diagnosis and the presence of at least 1 short allele (OR = 1.15,

95% CI = 1.01, 1.30, p < .05). Slightly more robust results were observed for participants who were homogeneous for the short allele (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.44, p < .05). These results were unrelated to sex and race/ethnicity of participants; however, the effect size was moderated by study sample size and publication year. Additionally, the fail-safe N analysis indicated potential publication bias. Therefore, although our review indicates that there is a significant association between 5HTTLPR and alcohol dependence diagnosis, this result should be interpreted with caution. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Fermentation of shrimp head was conducted using Streptococcus thermophilus to produce antioxidant and recover chitin. Fermentation

conditions were found to be 10% shrimp head concentration, 5% glucose concentration, 1.2%(v/v) inoculum size, and 64 h of incubation time at 42A degrees C to attain an initial pH of 5.00 with response surface method LB-100 cost optimization and the actual deproteinization rate obtained was 93.59%. Antioxidant activity in the supernatant fluid increased greatly during fermentation, the DPPH radical scavenging ability of the culture supernatant was about Cilengitide manufacturer 98.70%. The concent-ration of astaxanthin, phenolic compounds, and free amino acid in the culture supernatant was 1.774 mu g/mL, 589.69 mu g gallic acid equivalents/mL, and

796.978mg/mL, respectively. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis among commercial chitin (CTa), chitin prepared by the S. thermophilus fermentation (CTb), and chitin prepared by chemical treatments (CTc) demonstrated that CTb had the highest degree of deacetylation.”
“Wheat is the dominant crop in temperate countries being used for human food and livestock feed. Its success depends partly on its adaptability and high yield potential but also on the gluten protein fraction which confers the viscoelastic properties that allow dough to be processed into bread, pasta, noodles, and other food products. Wheat also contributes essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins, and beneficial phytochemicals and dietary fibre components to the human diet, and these are particularly enriched in whole-grain products. However, wheat products are also known or suggested to be responsible for a number of adverse reactions in humans, including intolerances (notably coeliac disease) and allergies (respiratory and food).

J Appl Polym Sci 120: 2627-2631, 2011″
“We present full-band

J Appl Polym Sci 120: 2627-2631, 2011″
“We present full-band structure calculations of temperature-and wavelength-dependent two-photon absorption coefficients and free-carrier absorption cross sections in GaAs, InP, and 0.92 eV-band gap Ga64In36As

and InP60As40 alloys. The calculated coefficient decreases with increasing wavelength and band gap but increases with temperature. Using detailed band structure analysis, we identify various contributions to the free-carrier absorption in GaAs and InP. Although the free-carrier absorption is found to arise predominantly from hole absorption, we show selleck compound that direct absorption by excited electrons is possible, leading to an enhanced free-carrier absorption coefficient. This excited state absorption could be exploited to modulate the transmission

of light at communication wavelengths (of 1.33 or 1.55 mu m) with, for example, the more commonly available 0.8 mu m diode laser. We further show that the high-intensity transmission calculated with our values of nonlinear parameters in GaAs agrees very well with the measured values. c 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3533775]“
“Movement disorders represent a significant societal burden for which therapeutic options are limited and focused on treating disease symptomality. Early-onset torsion dystonia (EOTD) is one such disorder characterized by sustained and involuntary muscle contractions that frequently cause repetitive movements or check details abnormal postures. Transmitted

in an autosomal dominant manner with reduced penetrance, EOTD is caused in most cases by the deletion of a glutamic acid (DE) in the DYT1 (also known as TOR1A) gene product, torsinA. Although some patients respond well to anticholingerics, therapy is primarily limited to either neurosurgery or chemodenervation. As mutant torsinA (DE) expression results in decreased torsinA function, therapeutic strategies directed toward enhancement of wild-type (WT) torsinA activity in patients who are heterozygous Entinostat purchase for mutant DYT1 may restore normal cellular functionality. Here, we report results from the first-ever screen for candidate small molecule therapeutics for EOTD, using multiple activity-based readouts for torsinA function in Caenorhabditis elegans, subsequent validation in human DYT1 patient fibroblasts, and behavioral rescue in a mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. We exploited the nematode to rapidly discern chemical effectors of torsinA and identified two classes of antibiotics, quinolones and aminopenicillins, which enhance WT torsinA activity in two separate in vivo assays. Representative molecules were assayed in EOTD patient fibroblasts for improvements in torsinA-dependent secretory function, which was improved significantly by ampicillin. Furthermore, a behavioral defect associated with an EOTD mouse knock-in model was also rescued following administration of ampicillin.

The radiation therapy consisted of 450-500

cGy fractions

The radiation therapy consisted of 450-500

cGy fractions with a 1- to 2-cm margin, using 6-9 MeV electrons and appropriate bolus material to ensure adequate dose from skin to depth. The patient did well and was discharged after 4 days.

Her postoperative course was uncomplicated and she had good wound healing with no recurrence of the keloids at her 15-month postoperative visit (Fig. 3). The patient also had a left preauricular keloid that was excised by plastic surgery 8 months after her delivery, and it was also treated with adjuvant external beam radiation therapy with good cosmetic result.”
“The thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha is able to grow at elevated temperature up to 48 A degrees C as one of a few yeast strains which are naturally capable of alcoholic fermentation of xylose, a pentose sugar abundant in lignocellulosic biomass. However, the current click here level of ethanol production from xylose by H. polymorpha is still very low compared to those of other xylose-fermenting strains. Therefore, it is necessary selleck screening library to analyze and remodel the xylose metabolism in H. polymorpha at the whole genome level to identify and overcome these limits. In the present

study, the transcriptomes of H. polymorpha grown on xylose were compared with those of glucose-grown cells under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions. Approximately, two percent of H. polymorpha genes were either up- or down-regulated by more than two-fold during the growth on xylose. The majority of the up-regulated genes were involved in metabolism. Some genes involved in xylose metabolism, such as XYL1, XYL2, and TAL1 were also up-regulated, despite the fact that the differences in their induction level were only about three-fold. On the other hand, the majority of the down-regulated genes were involved in metabolism and cellular transport. Interestingly, some genes involved in glycolysis and ethanol fermentation were also repressed during growth on xylose, suggesting that these genes are

good targets for engineering H. polymorpha to improve xylose fermentation.”
“There Thiazovivin supplier is still a lack of evidence to support the use of specific anesthetic agents during major operations that could affect the development of postoperative acute lung injury (ALI). This study determined the protective effect of inhaled isoflurane in a rat model of endotoxin-induced ALI.

Rats were exposed to volatile isoflurane (1.5 % in oxygen) or pure oxygen via a facemask for 2 h. After a 3-h recovery period, rats were reanesthetized and ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg in 0.5 ml saline). In some animals, a specific inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, 1400W, (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered before exposure to isoflurane. Animals were sacrificed 12 h later for analysis. Pulmonary artery vasomotor function and alveolocapillary permeability were assessed.

A numerical calculation on the basis of the Boltzmann-Poisson mod

A numerical calculation on the basis of the Boltzmann-Poisson model clarifies that the conduction band of the i-GaAs/n-GaAs Selleckchem GW4869 sample bends upward at the surface region, which indicates that photogenerated electrons flow into the inside. In the measurement of the terahertz wave, it is observed that the polarity of the terahertz wave from the SI-GaAs crystal is the same as that of the i-GaAs/n-GaAs sample, namely, the present SI-GaAs crystal has an upward

band bending. In contrast, the terahertz-wave polarity is reversed in the GaAs1-xNx samples in spite of the relatively small nitrogen mole fraction; namely, the GaAs1-xNx samples have a downward band bending. The above-mentioned terahertz-wave polarity reversal is attributed to the phenomenon that conduction-band bottom is considerably lowered by the band anticrossing peculiar to GaAs1-xNx, which results in approaching

the conduction-band bottom to the surface Fermi level. This modifies the direction of LEE011 price the surface band bending connected with the polarity of the terahertz wave. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3125451]“
“SETTING: Twenty hospitals in Spain.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of active tuberculosis (TB) and factors related to TB development after treatment for latent tuberculous infection (TLTBI) in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

DESIGN: In a multicentre cohort of HIV-1-infected patients, we calculated TB incidence selleck by tuberculin skin test

(TST) results and TLTBI, and factors associated with a positive TST and the development of TB after TLTBI.

RESULTS: Of 7902 patients, 6.5% had a history of TB at enrolment: 168 patients developed TB during 10889 person-years (py) of follow-up, corresponding to an incidence rate of 1.54 cases per 100 py (95%CI 1.33- 1.80). TB incidence in TST-positive patients who did not receive TLTBI was three times higher (6 cases/100 py) than in those who did (1.75 cases/100 py). In patients who received TLTBI, risk of development of TB was higher among cases aged <35 years (HR 6.14, 95%CI 1.12-33.73) and in those with a nadir CD4(+) cell count of <200 cells/mu l (HR 5.64, 95%CI 1.34-23.70).

CONCLUSIONS: TLTBI is effective in preventing the development of TB in HIV-infected patients, particularly in those who were TST-positive.”
“A prototype of Ni-Mn-Ga based ferromagnetic-shape-memory-alloy (FSMA) actuator was designed and built; an acoustic-assist technique was applied to the actuator to enhance its performance. A piezoelectric stack actuator was attached to the Ni-Mn-Ga sample to generate acoustic energy to enhance twin-boundary mobility and, hence, reduce the magnetic threshold field required for activating twin-boundary motion.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the LL

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the LLD and PTD to reduce Cobb angles and AVR. Experimental testing was performed pre-operatively on 12 surgical scoliosis patients prone on an experimental surgical frame. Postero-anterior radiographs of their spines were taken in the neutral prone position on a surgical frame, and then again for 6 with their legs bent towards the convexity of their lowest structural curve,

4 with their pelvis raised on the convex side of their lowest structural curve and one each in opposite LLD and PTD intended use. Use of the LLD allowed for an average supplementary reduction of 16A degrees (39%) for Cobb angle and 9A degrees (33%) for AVR in the lowest structural curve. Use of the PTD allowed for an average supplementary reduction of 9A degrees (19%) for Cobb angle and 17A degrees (48%) for AVR in the lowest structural Cl-amidine curve. Both devices were most efficient on thoraco-lumbar/lumbar curves. Opposite of intended use resulted in an increase in both Cobb angle and AVR. The LLD and PTD provide interesting novel methods to reduce Cobb angles and AVR through surgical positioning which

can be used to facilitate instrumentation procedures by offering an improved intra-operative geometry of the spine.”
“We have previously reported the development and characterisation of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-functionalised chitosan-Ca-alginate (CTS-Ca-ALG) microparticles (MPs) loaded with acid-resistant particles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In the present work, our goal was to evaluate the potential of these carriers for efficient treatment of colon cancer by studying in vitro permeability and cell association of 5-FU and [methyl-H-3]thymidine uptake in Caco-2 cells, as well as in vivo gastrointestinal distribution. The amount of 5-FU permeated through Caco-2 cells was 15.1, 7.7 and 6.5% for 5-FU solution, CTS-Ca-ALG MPs and WGA conjugates. The concentration of 5-FU associated with Caco-2 cells was significantly greater LY3039478 when delivered from MPs. By incorporation of 5-FU into MPs and further decoration

with WGA, an increased [methyl-H-3]thymidine uptake was observed few hours after continuous drug treatment followed by significantly reduced uptake after 6 h. Gastrointestinal distribution was in favour of increased localisation and concentration of the particles in colon region.”
“Alteplase (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator [rt-PA]) label approval by the Food and Drug Administration remarks the contraindication of its use with known intracranial neoplasm because of potential bleeding complications. Despite this concern, the real risk of intracerebral bleeding in patients with intracranial neoplasms treated with rt-PA is unknown, and there are few reports of thrombolysis in patients with brain tumors.

Cholestasis instantly improved in 82% of the patients After a lo

Cholestasis instantly improved in 82% of the patients. After a long-term follow-up of median 33 months (range 3-149), 28 of the patients (76%) required no further intervention for recurring biliary obstruction following HJS. Anastomotic strictures were observed in six (16%), recurring biliary concrements in two patients (5%).

Conclusion: HJS did prevent recurrent biliary obstruction in the majority of the patients. We therefore

recommend early HJS for complicated post-transplant biliary tract obstruction not treatable by a limited number of endoscopic AZD1480 supplier interventions.”
“We present the material alpha-omega-bis-(dicyanovinylen)-sexithiophen (DCV6T) as donor material in organic solar cells. A systematic study on the potential of DCV6T is given for different active layer concepts. DCV6T is a member of a class of acceptor-substituted oligothiophenes, which showed efficiencies of up to 3.4% and open circuit voltages (V(oc)) of 1.0 V, which were recently BKM120 clinical trial reported [K. Schulze Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 2875 (2006)]. To verify the potential of the material (DCV6T), organic solar cells with planar heterojunctions, bulk heterojunctions, and a hybrid-planar-mixed heterojunction are investigated. The planar heterojunction

solar cells of DCV6T and C60 show the highest V(oc) of 0.90 V. The mixed heterojunction solar cells have improved currents but a lower V(oc) of 0.82 V. The solar cell using the hybrid-planar-mixed heterojunction achieves the best combination of parameters. It has

a V(oc) of 0.88 V, a short circuit current (j(sc)) of 5.7 +/- 0.4 mA cm(-2), a fill factor of 41.6%, and a power conversion efficiency of 2.1 +/- 0.2%.”
“Background There are various therapeutic SB202190 price options for the treatment of pyogenic granuloma (PyG), but the results are frequently unsatisfactory, especially at difficult sites and with extensive lesions. Objective To evaluate the success of treatment of PyG using the 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and to compare it with state-of-the-art treatment methods. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with PyG were treated using the long-pulsed 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser with fluences of 60 to 180 J/cm2, a spot size of 7 mm, and a pulse duration of 40 ms. One to four treatment sessions were necessary for complete removal. Results Recurrence-free healing occurred in 19 of 20 patients (follow-up = 6 months, maximum 22 months). Because of heavy bleeding, one nonresponder was successfully treated using a carbon dioxide laser. The cosmetic results were good; textural changes of the skin were slight, if present at all. Conclusion When used with the right strategy and patient cohort, the long-pulse 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser is an effective, low-risk, minimally invasive method of treating PyG.