As processing plants receive milk from the same dairies over time

As processing plants receive milk from the same dairies over time, it is likely that the same herds and even the same animals were sampled multiple times. Major temporal changes in prevalence and genotypes should

be detectable. Indeed, minor genotypes were detected among the goat milk samples, indicating ephemeral emergence of different types. Conversely, subtle changes may be masked by the milk pooling process and the ability of a single infected animal to contaminate large quantities of milk. Indeed, other studies suggest that there is evidence of seasonality: In cows, shedding in milk is not associated with parturition [39] although seroprevalence is highest in the Autumn [40]. In goats, C. burnetii are highly ICG-001 abundant

(up to 109 organisms/g of placental tissue) Tipifarnib in birth tissues [41] and more likely to be shed after parturition [42]. Human infections are therefore likely to be more common during livestock birthing seasons [43], suggesting that infection variation among goat herds might also be seasonally linked. Seasonality is often associated with a boom and bust cycle of transmission, and the lack of strong seasonal patterns may increase disease persistence. As pathogens are dispersed across the landscape, elapsed time allows for cellular replication and opportunities for genetic mutations to Fer-1 solubility dmso accumulate, providing genetic signatures to identify the patterns and speed of dissemination. The presence of the same genotypes among samples from across the country and the world is indicative of rapid dispersal of particular gentoypes and subsequent ecological establishment across these regions. While a paucity of historical samples and sampling efforts prevents us from

estimating when these STs became dominant, no ST20 isolates were collected in the U.S. before 2007 [20]. Interestingly, the only U.S. C. burnetii samples isolated from milk with a known date were obtained from cows in California (1947) and Ohio (1958) [20]. Both samples Interleukin-3 receptor are ST16/26, showing that the dominant genotype among cows may have recently changed. Higher resolution genotyping will be important for discerning dissemination patterns and mechanisms of these C. burnetii genotypes as dispersal may be due to long distance aerosol spread, trade, or other anthropogenic means. For example, sexual transmission through semen [44] from the small stock of infected breeding bulls used to breed Holstein cows throughout the world could result in shared genotypes. However, additional resolution among ST20 and ST8 samples has been shown with MLVA [27] and demonstrates that dissemination speed and patterns may have allowed for the accumulation of genetic differences and thus discerning patterns, mechanisms and barriers to dispersal may be possible.

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