Apart from contributing to the application of TMV superlattice, t

Apart from contributing to the application of TMV superlattice, this work also pioneered in the viscoelasticity study of virus and virus-based materials. By far, most literature on viral www.selleckchem.com/products/3-methyladenine.html viscoelasticity has been focused

on the dynamic properties of virus suspensions or solutions [31–34]. One of the rare viscoelasticity studies on individual virus particle is the qualitative characterization of the viscoelasticity of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus [26] using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique, which presents only the relative rigidity between two samples. To date, little literature is available on the quantitative study of the viscoelasticity of individual virus/virus-based

particles. Considering the potential uses of TMV/Ba2+ superlattice, its viscoelastic properties and responses under different mechanical stimuli need to be investigated. Figure 1 Schematic, FESEM image, and AFM height image of TMV/Ba 2+ superlattice. (a) Schematic of hexagonal organization of rod-like TMV/Ba2+ superlattice. (b) FESEM RG7204 solubility dmso image of the TMV/Ba2+ superlattice. (c) AFM height image of a TMV/Ba2+ superlattice. A number of techniques for measuring the viscoelasticity of macro-scale materials have been used. A comprehensive review of those methods can be found in the literature [35] that addresses the principles of viscoelasticity and experimental setup for time- and frequency-domain measurements. When the sample under investigation is in micro or even nanometer scale, however, the viscoelastic measurements become much more complicated. In dynamic methods, shear modulation spectroscopy [36] and magnetic bead manipulation [37] are two common methodologies to obtain the micro/nanoviscoelastic properties. To improve the measurement accuracy, efforts have been made to assess the viscoelasticity of micro/nanomaterials using contact-resonance AFM [38–41]. The adhesion between the AFM probe tip and sample, however, is usually neglected. Furthermore, in order

for the dynamic method Histone demethylase to obtain a sinusoidal stress response, the applied strain amplitude must be kept reasonably small to avoid chaotic stress response and transient changes in material properties [42]. In addition, the dynamic properties are frequency dependent, which is time consuming to map the viscoelasticity over a wide range of frequencies. An alternative way to measure the viscoelastic response of a material is the transient method. Transient indentation with an indenter was developed based on the functional equation methods [43], where the loading or traveling histories of the indenter need to be precisely programmed. In this study, the viscoelastic properties of the TMV/Ba2+ superlattice were investigated using AFM-based nanoindentation.

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