Andreas Schäffer) at RWTH Aachen University, Head of the Departme

Andreas Schäffer) at RWTH Aachen University, Head of the Department of Ecosystem Analysis, ERASMUS coordinator of the School

of Biology, and adjunct professor at Nanjing University (School of the Environment); Dr. Hollert is a member of the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, where he is a council member of the SETAC Europe-FK228 manufacturer German Language Branch and a member of the SedNet and Editor-in-Chief ESEU. AS, Prof. Dr. rer. nat., is the director of the Institute for Environmental Research (in cooperation with Prof. Dr. Henner Hollert) at RWTH Aachen University, Chair of Environmental Biology Thiazovivin clinical trial and Chemodynamics, Chair of the board of the Research Institute for Ecosystem analysis and assessment gaiac, adjunct professor Nanjing University (School of the Environment), a member of Society of German Chemistry, Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh, chair of the board), Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), German Soil Science Society (DBG), expert in the German federal institute for risk assessment, (BfR), and Editorial board Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. HM, Dr. rer. BAY 80-6946 datasheet nat., is the head of the working group Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanoparticles at the Institute for Environmental Research at RWTH Aachen University. Acknowledgements We thank Simone Hotz from the Institute for Environmental Research at the RWTH Aachen University for supporting the practical work.

The authors also thank the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) for funding the CarboLifeCycle project as a part of Inno.CNT, the innovation alliance for CNT (http://​www.​inno-cnt.​de/​en/​). The authors would like to express their thanks to Drs. Niels C. Bols and Lucy Lee (University

of Waterloo, Canada) for providing RTL-W1 cells and BioDetection Systems for the ER-CALUX cells. References 1. Ball P: Roll up for the revolution. Nature 2001, 414:142–144. 2. Dalton AB, Collins S, Munoz E, Razal JM, Ebron VH, Ferraris JP, Coleman JN, Kim BG, Baughman RH: Super-tough carbon-nanotube fibres. Nature 2003, 423:703–703. 3. Mauter MS, Elimelech M: Environmental applications of carbon-based nanomaterials. Environ Sci Technol 2008, 42:5843–5859. 4. Petersen EJ, Henry TB: Methodological considerations for testing the ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes and fullerenes: review. Environ Toxicol Chem 2012, 31:60–72. 5. Haniu H, Saito N, Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK Matsuda Y, Kim YA, Park KC, Tsukahara T, Usui Y, Aoki K, Shimizu M, Ogihara N, Hara K, Takanashi S, Okamoto M, Ishigaki N, Nakamura K, Kato H: Elucidation mechanism of different biological responses to multi-walled carbon nanotubes using four cell lines. Int J Nanomedicine 2011, 6:3487–3497. 6. Armstrong D, Bharali DJ, Armstrong D, Bharali DJ: Nanoparticles: toxicity, radicals, electron transfer, and antioxidants. In Oxidative Stress and Nanotechnology. Northern Algeria: Human Press; 2013:16–17. 7. EU – European Commission Recommendation on the definition of nanomaterialhttp://​ec.​europa.

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