All sample collections and protocols are

described in the

All sample collections and protocols are

described in the Supporting Information. Mitochondrial modifications were investigated in mice that become obese due to a genetic leptin-deficiency caused by the ob/ob selleck mutation.13 Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous mega-mitochondria with matrix swelling, loss of internal material, and OM ruptures in a population of isolated mitochondria from ob/ob mice (Fig. 1A). These structural alterations correlated with an increase in MMP and of mitochondrial volume. As compared to mitochondria from lean mice, ob/ob mitochondria exhibited accelerated Ca2+-induced matrix swelling (Fig. 1B) and ΔΨm dissipation (Fig. 1C). Permeabilized fatty acid (FA)-treated human immortalized hepatocytes (HHL-5 cells)10 (Supporting Fig. 1) also proved to be more sensitive to Ca2+-triggered ΔΨm loss than untreated cells (Fig. 1D). Moreover, mitochondria from ob/ob mice were more permeable Decitabine cell line to water, both in normal condition and upon Ca2+ stimulation of PT (Fig. 2A). In the presence of cyclosporin A (CsA), the prototypic inhibitor of PT, the permeability of control and ob/ob mitochondria was reduced to similarly low levels (Fig. 2A). As a consequence, the proapoptotic

intermembrane space protein, cytochrome c (Cyt c), was found in the 100,000 x g-supernatants of isolated ob/ob mitochondria from obese mice (Fig. 2B). This was not the case for the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), another proapoptotic protein (Fig. 2B). Caspase 3/7 activities were not enhanced by FA accumulation in vitro or in vivo (Fig. 2C,D), suggesting that the apoptotic signaling cascade was not activated. The distribution of Cyt c in ob/ob and lean mouse livers was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry (Supporting Fig. 2). Cyt c was particularly

expressed in portal tracts and in some centrolobular areas, whereas lobular hepatocytes presented a lesser staining Rebamipide (Supporting Fig. 2A,B). In livers obtained from lean mice, a punctate cytoplasmic staining was observed in hepatocytes, whereas in steatotic or also some nonsteatotic hepatocytes from ob/ob mice livers a more diffused cytoplasmic staining was observed. These results confirm that in steatotic liver, more hepatocytes present a cytoplasmic liberation of Cyt c from mitochondria probably due to an increased membrane permeabilization. To assess the causative link between mitochondrial proteins modification and mitochondrial dysfunction, the pharmacological regulation of MMP was examined. Thus, Ca2+ induced the maximal swelling and depolarization in 30 minutes and CsA inhibited Ca2+-induced swelling and depolarization in both mitochondrion types nearly as efficiently as the Ca2+ chelator EGTA (Fig. 3A,B).

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