After that, if we lift up the tip, the curves in Figure 3 indicat

After that, if we lift up the tip, the curves in Figure 3 indicate that the manipulated atom will stay in the well near the tip. That is, the atom will follow the tip and be extracted from the surface, as the simulation above shows. From Figure 3, we can also estimate the reliability of the extraction process; the energy curve of 6.1 Å shows that the energy barrier for the manipulated atom escaping from the tip is about 0.25 eV, which indicates that the picking up process is robust against the disturbances

such as thermal diffusion of atoms. Figure 3 Variation of potential energy relative to height of ON-01910 cell line manipulated atom. At different tip heights, the relative potential energy varies with the height of the manipulated atom from the Al (111) step surface. The next step of substitutional doping is to selleck chemical position a dopant atom to the vacancy site where the Al atom is extracted. Here, we consider BMS202 research buy two kinds of dopants: Ag and Au atoms. For this purpose,

sharp Ag and Au tips with single apex atom are considered; such sharp tip can be fabricated by electroplating and then annealing, or touching a certain metal surface [17, 18]. In our simulation, the sharp Ag tip is modeled by a heterogeneous one which contains both Ag and Al atoms, as shown in Figure 4. Blue balls indicate the Ag atoms. The apex of heterogeneous tip is mimicked by three layers of Ag atoms, and our test calculations show that three layers of Ag atoms are equivalent to four layers or more. In other words, three layers of Ag atoms

are sufficient for simulation of the sharp Ag tip which is also suitable for the Au tip. Figure 4 The process of positioning Ag dopant to the (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate step site by Ag single-apex tip. (a) The tip is located upon the site. (b) As the tip approaches the surface, the dopant atom relaxes toward the up terrace. (c) Move the tip laterally in the X direction. (d) In the end, the dopant atom is released successfully from the tip and adsorbed at the step site. As shown in Figure 4a, the tip is initially placed above the vacancy site with the tip height of 8 Å at which the tip-surface interaction is almost negligible. As the tip approaches the surface step by step, the tip apex atom, i.e., the dopant atom, relaxes toward the up terrace due to the strong attraction. When the tip reaches the height of 7.1 Å, as demonstrated in Figure 4b, the dopant atom shows an obvious movement toward the up terrace since the attraction is strong enough. At this moment, two up-terrace atoms are pulled up slightly and in contact with the dopant atom (see Figure 4b). After that, we move the tip laterally in the X direction in a step of 0.2 Å at a constant height. As the tip moves forward, as shown in Figure 4c, the dopant atom drops gradually because of the decreasing vertical attraction from the tip. In the end, the dopant atom is released successfully from the tip and adsorbed at the step site (see Figure 4d).

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