After baseline testing, subjects were assigned randomly in a doub

After baseline testing, subjects were assigned randomly in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO) or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6wk of treatment. A treatment by time, repeated measures ANOVA was used to evaluate signaling pathway differences between groups over time, and a standard Pearson’s r was used to evaluate correlations. Additionally, within group pre-post differences were evaluated using a repeated measures t-test. For

all analysis, the alpha level was set at p<0.05. Results Compared to the SO group, there was a significant decrease in urinary creatinine corrected NTx selleck excretion following FO treatment (SO = 17.5 ± 42.9 BCE/mM;

FO = -11.3 ± 27.7 BCE/mM; p=0.02). There was also a tendency for urinary creatinine corrected IL-6 excretion (SO = -0.08 ± 1.18pg/mg; FO = -1.8 ± 3.8 pg/mg; p=0.08), and salivary cortisol (SO = 0.029±0.283 µg/dL; FO = -0.069 ± 0.144 µg/dL; p=0.13) to decrease following FO treatment.When analyzed independently, however, there was a significant pre-post reduction for salivary cortisol in the FO group (p=0.04), with no change in the SO group (p=0.68), as well as a significant reduction pre-post for urinary IL-6 in the FO group (p=0.05), with no change in the SO group (p=0.78). However, the change in urinary NTx concentrationwas not related to the change

insalivary cortisol concentration(r=-0.017, p=0.9), or the change in urinary IL-6 concentration (r=-0.323, p=0.26). Conclusions Six weeks of supplementation with FO in adults significantly decreased urinary NTx excretion, click here but this change was not related to changes in cortisol or IL-6. Funding Gettysburg College Research and Professional Development Grant and Genuine Health Corporation.”
“Background Volleyball is a physically demanding sport and success is based on aspects speed, power, agility, endurance, rapid processing and focus. Nutrition plays a significant role in maximizing performance and volleyball athletes need to be well-informed. Meanwhile, players can be self-conscious of body size and appearance especially in lieu of body contour revealing uniforms. At this time research-based information of this athletic population with regard to body composition, nutrition intake, habits and perceptions is limited and was studied. Methods Twelve Division I women volleyball players aged 18.33±2.9 with 8.8±1.9 years of competitive volleyball experience participated in a study to assess body weight, composition and self-image as well as nutrition knowledge, perceptions, information resources and intake. Body composition was assessed using BOD POD (Life Measurement, Inc) and a 50-question survey was administered including questions addressing nutrition habits, perceptions and knowledge as well as self-image.

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