ACE is Involved in the so-called reninangiotensin cascade of water regulation, which in turn affects blood volume and blood pressure.
A recent study observed an association between the combined dex/CRH test and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in depressed patients, which has been interpreted as evidence for an involvement of a reduced neuroplasticity in the development of disturbed HPA axis regulation.23 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Taken together, there are only a limited number of studies examining the association between candidate genes and the stress response. Besides genes involved in the sympathetic (ACE) or HPA axis-mediated (GR) stress response, further genes constituting different biological systems implicated in emotional regulation26 and neuroplasticity (BDNF) have been examined. However, the results show only moderate effect sizes, although heritability estimates suggest a strong involvement
of genetic factors. Further evidence Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for genes involved in the regulation of the stress response could be provided by clinical studies investigating genetic vulnerability factors for stress-related disorders. These genetic risk factors are assumed to be responsible for an inappropriate response to repeated and/or continuous stress and thus for mediating the vulnerability for stress-related disorders. Genetics of stress-related Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical disorders A large number of diseases can be understood as stress-related disorders, and most of them are characterized by an at least moderate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical heritability. In this review, we focus on the most prevalent stress-related disorders, hypertension and coronary artery disease, as examples of cardio-vascular disorders, and on bipolar disorder and unipolar depression as examples of psychiatric disorders. Cardiovascular disorders are the leading cause of mortality in the Western world, and are projected to become the
leading cause of disease Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical burden worldwide in 2020.32 Essential hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder, with a lifetime Ketanserin prevalence of above 50% in most western communities, affecting approximately f billion individuals worldwide33; heritability estimates around 30% have been reported.34 Myocardial Dinaciclib cell line infarction is a serious outcome of coronary artery disease. Twin studies suggest that the risk for myocardial infarction is fairly heritable, with a heredity estimate of 60% in females and 26% in males.35 A large number of case-control association studies in essential hypertension are available (Table IIa) focussing on a number of candidate gene systems. The majority of findings have been obtained with candidates from the sympathetic system, including adrenergic genes, genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and genes involved in vascular regulation.