9 ± 54%), but no concentration gradient was detected between prox

9 ± 54%), but no concentration gradient was detected between proximal and distal dendrites. In conclusion, the density of KCC2 in hippocampal principal cells increases along the axo-somato-dendritic axis with cell type-specific distribution profiles within the dendritic tree. “
“Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are extracellular matrix molecules whose inhibitory activity is attenuated by the enzyme chondroitinase ABC (ChABC). Here we assess whether CSPG

degradation can promote compensatory sprouting Kinase Inhibitor Library in vitro of the intact corticospinal tract (CST) following unilateral injury and restore function to the denervated forelimb. Adult C57BL/6 mice underwent unilateral pyramidotomy and treatment with either ChABC or a vehicle control. Significant impairments in forepaw symmetry were observed following pyramidotomy, with injured mice preferentially using their intact paw during spontaneous vertical exploration of a cylinder. No recovery on this task was

observed in vehicle-treated mice. However, ChABC-treated mice showed a marked recovery of function, with forelimb symmetry fully restored by 5 weeks post-injury. Functional recovery was associated with robust sprouting of the uninjured CST, with numerous axons observed crossing the midline in the brainstem and spinal cord and terminating in denervated grey matter. CST fibres in the denervated side of the spinal cord following GPCR Compound Library order ChABC treatment were closely associated with the synaptic marker Tau-protein kinase vGlut1. Immunohistochemical assessment of chondroitin-4-sulphate revealed that CSPGs were heavily digested around lamina X, alongside midline crossing axons and in grey matter regions where sprouting axons and reduced peri-neuronal net staining

was observed. Thus, we demonstrate that CSPG degradation promotes midline crossing and reinnervation of denervated target regions by intact CST axons and leads to restored function in the denervated forepaw. Enhancing compensatory sprouting using ChABC provides a route to restore function that could be applied to disorders such as spinal cord injury and stroke. “
“Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for the subsequent development of epilepsy. Currently, chronic seizures after brain injury are often poorly controlled by available antiepileptic drugs. Hypothermia treatment, a modest reduction in brain temperature, reduces inflammation, activates pro-survival signaling pathways, and improves cognitive outcome after TBI. Given the well-known effect of therapeutic hypothermia to ameliorate pathological changes in the brain after TBI, we hypothesized that hypothermia therapy may attenuate the development of post-traumatic epilepsy and some of the pathomechanisms that underlie seizure formation.

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