80 with Sa113 from meat products and at minor similarity level wi

80 with Sa113 from meat products and at minor similarity level with other two meat isolates. The remaining meat isolates grouped in different subgroups, all within group 2, which also included the remaining fish and salad isolates. In conclusion, our Ibrutinib nmr results support the idea of an early separation of L. garvieae population into two independent genomic lineages. Subsequently, the environmental stimuli of

a specific niche could have exerted a selective pressure favoring the emergence of several independent genotypes. It appears plausible that genomic flux within the dispensable genome, recombination events between genetically distinct strains during mixed colonization and/or gene (in)activation could have governed the bacterial adaptation to different habitats. Recently, we carried out the complete genome sequencing of one strain of dairy origin and one strain isolated from fish, belonging to ‘meat-group’ (Ricci et al., 2012). Whole-genome comparison between these and other L. garvieae available complete genomes, together with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) experiments are in progress in our laboratory for a deeper understanding of the

evolutionary history and the global complexity of this bacterial species. This work was supported by ‘Post genomica batterica per la qualità e la sicurezza degli alimenti’ project from the Lombardy region (Italy). We thank Dr S. Guglielmetti for a critical reading of the manuscript STK38 and for his useful Alpelisib molecular weight suggestions. “
“Interspecies bacterial communication is mediated by autoinducer-2, whose synthesis depends on luxS. Due to the apparent universality

of luxS (present in more than 40 bacterial species), it may have an ancient origin; however, no direct evidence is currently available. We amplified luxS in bacteria isolated from 25- to 40-million-year-old amber. The phylogenies and molecular clocks of luxS and the 16S rRNA gene from ancient and extant bacteria were determined as well. Luminescence assays using Vibrio harveyi BB170 aimed to determine the activity of luxS. While the phylogeny of luxS was very similar to that of extant Bacillus spp., amber isolates exhibited unique 16S rRNA gene phylogenies. This suggests that luxS may have been acquired by horizontal transfer millions of years ago. Molecular clocks of luxS suggest slow evolutionary rates, similar to those of the 16S rRNA gene and consistent with a conserved gene. Dendograms of the 16S rRNA gene and luxS show two separate clusters for the extant and ancient bacteria, confirming the uniqueness of the latter group. Interspecies bacterial communication, or quorum sensing (QS), is mediated by autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a furanosyl borate diester (Schauder et al., 2001). Synthesis of AI-2 depends on luxS, which is the product of S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase. luxS was first identified in Vibrio harveyi, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium, and its expression has been associated with virulence in E.

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