4D) or delivered by TRAIL (Fig 4E) were enhanced by IFN-α-derive

4D) or delivered by TRAIL (Fig. 4E) were enhanced by IFN-α-derived type-3 signals both on naïve and memory cells. Lysis of Caki-1 cells was completely mediated by TRAIL in naïve CD8+ T cells, while in memory cells there was a slight contribution of FasL (Fig. 4E). To further confirm the effects of IFN-α on human naïve CD8+ T cells and to

completely exclude Ag-experienced CD8+ T cells, umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC) were used as a source of neonatal CD8+ T cells. Figure 5 shows that IFN-α2b with concomitant CD3/CD28-signaling clearly enhanced proliferation, IFN-γ secretion as well as the cytolytic activity (both CD3-redirected and TRAIL-mediated) of human neonatal CD8+ T cells. Circulating CD45RA+/−CD27− CD8+ CHIR-99021 clinical trial T cells cells behave as effector CTL since they abundantly express FasL mRNA, contain perforin and Granzyme-B, and are able to kill ex vivo Torin 1 chemical structure target cells. These cells are characterized by their low proliferative potential 16. As shown in Fig. 6A, CD45RA+CD27− effector cells did not divide after stimulation with Beads even in the presence of IFN-α. However, a weak cell division was observed in CD3/CD28-triggered CD45RA−CD27− CTL that was delayed by IFN-α (Fig. 6A). Next we examined the effects of IFN-α on the effector functions of CD45RA+/−CD27− CTL. As these cells are endowed with

immediate effector functions, freshly purified CD45RA+CD27− and CD45RA−CD27− CTL were co-cultured with control IgG- or OKT3-loaded p815 target cells in the presence

or absence of IFN-α else without any previous step of in vitro restimulation (Fig. 6B). As depicted in Fig. 6C, IFN-α markedly enhanced the expression of IFN-γ upon encounter of OKT3-loaded target cells. Similarly, IFN-α also increased the levels of secreted IFN-γ upon stimulation of CD45RA+CD27− and CD45RA−CD27− CTL with Beads (Fig. 6D). By contrast, IFN-α did not alter the surface expression of CD107a as attained by the co-culture with OKT3-loaded target cells (Fig. 6C). Freshly purified CD45RA+CD27− or CD45RA−CD27− CTL did not express TRAIL on their surface (data not shown). However, expression of TRAIL became apparent after 18 h of culture with OKT3-loaded p815 cells combined with IFN-α (Fig. 6C). This expression correlated with enhanced TRAIL-mediated killing of Caki-1 cells (Fig. 6E). CD8+ T cells specific for the CMVpp65495–503 epitope were sorted from HLA-A2+ subjects that showed a detectable positive staining in PBL with the HLA-A2/CMVpp65495–503-pentamer (CMVpent). The patterns of CD45RA/CD27 expression within the CMVpent+ cell population varied among individuals (Supporting Information Fig. 7A and B). Freshly purified CMVpent+ cells resembled the surface phenotype ascribed to effector or recently activated CTL, rather than to resting memory lymphocytes. CMVpent+ cells paralleled effector CTL since they expressed Granzyme-B (Supporting Information Fig. 7C) and were able to kill (Supporting Information Fig. 7D) and to produce high amounts of IFN-γ (Fig.

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