33 The overall utility of this type of assessment requires more i

33 The overall utility of this type of assessment requires more investigation and remains experimental at this stage. Crossmatching is a vital tool in assessing the immune compatibility of a particular donor/recipient pairing. A positive T-cell CDC crossmatch Peptide 17 supplier would usually mean that a particular pairing should not proceed. In some cases, a desensitization protocol may allow such a transplant to occur, avoiding hyperacute

or early acute rejection albeit with inferior long-term graft outcomes compared with patients who are not sensitized to their donor. The advent of flow crossmatching and Luminex assays has allowed detection of lower titre but potentially clinically relevant anti-HLA antibodies by approximately 10-fold. Further studies are required to better GSK126 price define the significance of very low-level DSAbs, non-complement fixing antibodies, IgM antibodies

and non-HLA antibodies as well as the importance of assessing T cellular sensitization. The authors’ view is that the tried and trusted technique of CDC crossmatching remains essential and should be coupled with a determination of the specificity of anti-HLA antibodies by Luminex. With these two assays the role of flow crossmatching is less clear and is rarely helpful in decision making. The ideal future crossmatch will be highly sensitive in identifying DSAbs and provide accurate prediction of the functional significance of the antibody. This will allow transplant physicians to confidently proceed with a transplant in the face of a clinically irrelevant DSAb while providing clear prognostic information in the setting of more serious C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) antibodies. We thank Dr Kevan Polkinghorne for his critical appraisal of the manuscript. “
“Date written: Jan 2008 Final submission: June 2008 No recommendations possible based on Level I or II evidence (Suggestions are based on Level III and IV evidence) Potential

living donors should have their urinary protein excretion measured using either a 24-hour urine collection (daily excretion) or a spot urine sample (protein/creatinine ratio). Short- and long-term living kidney donor outcomes need to be closely monitored. The aim of this guideline is to review the available literature on the potential long-term risks of donating a kidney in the presence of pre-donation proteinuria and to develop suggestions for management of these potential donors. The justification for performing living kidney donation is based on the benefits of the procedure on the recipient’s health and on the psyche of the donor through the act of altruism, outweighing the short- and long-term adverse outcomes on the donor. In the medical assessment of the potential donor, a critical estimation is made of their future risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. If the risk is predicted to be too great then the living kidney donation does not proceed.

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