3.1. Mixture proportions of the cement mortarTo evaluate the electrical resistance and the polarization resistance measured by the sensor in chloride-contaminated cement mortar, different cement chloride contents were obtained by dissolving NaCl in water (see Table 3). Two specimens and sensors were used for each mixture proportion inhibitor price (A to D).Table 3.Mi
Intelligent robotics, as defined by Lopez-Juarez, et al. , demands the integration of smart sensors [2,3] that allow the controller to efficiently measure physical quantities. Communication and data processing functionalities are two of the most important features in smart sensors , but data fusion is also desirable.
Industrial manipulator robots require constant monitoring of several variables and their fusion [4�C6] such as: motion dynamics, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries inclination, and vibration; Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries these variables inform about the machine wellness, highlighting the necessity of a specialized Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries smart sensor that provides sufficient information to evaluate the robot performance. This work is focused on the extraction of several parameters from the mentioned physical variables, related to a single axis industrial robot arm. Motion dynamics is defined as the time-dependent profiles for position, velocity, acceleration, and jerk  in a servomotor, and determines the motion trajectory of a single axis robotic arm to reach a specific position and orientation based on a motion controller that uses these profiles as reference. On the other hand, the robot inclination is related to the spatial orientation of the physical sensor, where angular position, velocity, and acceleration on each robot link can be inferred.
In addition, during the arm motion, vibrations are generated mainly due to friction, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries gearing, joint wear, etc.; these vibrations are undesired movements that reflect potential failures or improper Dacomitinib operating conditions, making necessary their continuous monitoring to detect possible problems. Summarizing, it is desirable to have a single system able to provide all the aforementioned parameters from each robot link.Current literature points out that the encoder in servomotors [4,8�C10] and the accelerometer [11�C14] are two of the most widely used sensors to monitor motion dynamics and vibrations on computerized numeric control (CNC) machines and robotic manipulator arms.
Conversely, in industry, automation demands the integration of smart sensors [2,3] and control drivers in an open-architecture fashion [1,15]. Motion dynamics has been estimated from an incremental optical encoder in [9,10] where position, velocity, acceleration, and jerk parameters are successfully meantime obtained, but they do not present the information of vibrations nor inclination. The use of accelerometers is well established to obtain kinematics parameters [8,16�C18] or to measure vibrations , but there are no reported works that cover a broad parameter spectrum.