New developments such as solid-phase column extraction, electroch

New developments such as solid-phase column extraction, electrochemical separation, extraction

chromatography, supported liquid membrane (SLM) and thermochromatographic techniques are also being evaluated for their potential application in the changed scenario of providing Tc-99m from alternate routes. Based on the analysis provided in this review, it appears that some proven separation technologies can be quickly resurrected for the separation of clinical grade Tc-99m from macroscopic levels of reactor or cyclotron irradiated molybdenum targets. Furthermore, emerging technologies can be developed further to respond to the expected changing modes of Tc-99m production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Worldwide, uroflowmetry without simultaneous electromyography is often the only testing performed during the initial assessment of children with LY2874455 manufacturer lower urinary tract symptoms. Various alterations in uroflow pattern are thought to indicate particular types

of lower urinary tract conditions, specifically staccato uroflow indicating dysfunctional voiding and intermittent/fractionated uroflow indicating detrusor underactivity. We determined how reliable uroflow pattern alone is as a surrogate for simultaneously measured pelvic floor electromyography activity during voiding, and how well staccato and interrupted uroflow actually correlate with the diagnoses they are presumed to represent.

Materials and Methods: We reviewed uroflow/electromyography studies performed during the initial evaluation of 388 consecutive neurologically and anatomically

normal patients with persistent lower urinary tract symptoms. We identified those with staccato, interrupted/fractionated and mixed uroflow based on current International Children’s Continence Society guidelines.

Results: A total of 69 girls (58.5%) and 49 boys (41.5%) met inclusion criteria. Staccato uroflow was noted in 60 patients, interrupted/fractionated uroflow in 28 and a combination in 30. An active Epothilone B (EPO906, Patupilone) electromyography during voiding confirmed the diagnosis of dysfunctional voiding in 33.3% of patients with staccato, 46.4% with interrupted/fractionated and 50% with mixed uroflow patterns.

Conclusions: Diagnoses based on uroflow pattern appearance without simultaneous electromyography to support them can be misleading, and reliance on uroflow pattern alone can lead to overdiagnoses of dysfunctional voiding and detrusor underactivity. When assessing patients with uroflow, an accompanying simultaneous pelvic floor electromyography is of utmost importance for improving diagnostic accuracy and thereby allowing for the most appropriate therapy.”
“A functional proteomic technology using protein chip and molecular simulation was used to demonstrate a novel biomolecular interaction between P11, a peptide containing the Ser-Asp-Val (SDV) sequence and integrin alpha v beta 3.

VMDT effect on bone remodeling was evaluated by measuring osteocl

VMDT effect on bone remodeling was evaluated by measuring osteoclast regulators (soluble receptor selleck inhibitor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio, osteopontin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha), dickkopf-1 protein, bone resorption and formation markers, whereas its effect on angiogenesis was assessed by measuring serum vascular endothelial growth factor, angiogenin, angiopoietin-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor, after four cycles and at the study end. A total of 62 patients were enrolled. The overall response

rate was 66%: CR 13%, vgPR 27% and PR 26%. Median time to response was 35 days and median time to progression was 9.3 months. Common adverse

events included cytopenias, peripheral neuropathy Belinostat clinical trial and infections. No patient experienced deep-vein thrombosis. VMDT reduced angiogenic cytokines, osteoclast regulators, dickkopf-1 and bone resorption. We conclude that VMDT with intermittent thalidomide is an active and well-tolerated regimen for relapsed/refractory myeloma, affecting abnormal bone remodeling and angiogenesis.”
“Background Two phase II trials in patients with previously-treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer suggested that gefitinib was efficacious and less toxic than was chemotherapy. We compared gefitinib with docetaxel in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer who had been pretreated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

Methods We undertook an open-label phase III study Methane monooxygenase with recruitment between March 1, 2004, and Feb 17, 2006, at 149 centres in 24 countries. 1466 patients with pretreated ( :o ne platinum-based regimen) advanced non-small-cell lung cancer were randomly assigned with dynamic balancing to receive gefitinib (250 mg per day orally; n=733) or docetaxel (75 mg/m(2) intravenously in 1-h infusion every 3 weeks; n=733). The primary objective was to compare overall survival between the groups with co-primary analyses to assess non-inferiority

in the overall per-protocol population and superiority in patients with high epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-gene-copy number in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with, number NCT00076388.

Findings 1433 patients were analysed per protocol (723 in gefitinib group and 710 in docetaxel group). Non-inferiority of gefitinib compared with docetaxel was confirmed for overall survival (593 vs 576 events; hazard ratio [HR] 1 . 020, 96% CI 0.905-1.150, meeting the predefined non-inferiority criterion; median survival 7.6 vs 8.0 months) Superiority of gefitinib in patients with high EGFR-gene-copy number (85 vs 89 patients) was not proven (72 vs 71 events; HR 1. 09, 95% Cl 0 . 78-1.51; p=0 . 62; median survival 8 . 4 vs 7.5 months).

05 for all comparisons among treatment groups) The mean weight l

05 for all comparisons among treatment groups). The mean weight loss was 2.9 kg for the low-fat group, 4.4 kg for the Mediterranean-diet group, and 4.7 kg for the low-carbohydrate group (P<0.001 for the interaction between diet group and time); among the 272 participants who completed the intervention, the mean weight losses were 3.3 kg, 4.6 kg, and 5.5 kg,

respectively. The relative reduction in the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 20% in the low-carbohydrate group and 12% in the low-fat group (P=0.01). Among the 36 subjects with diabetes, changes in fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were more favorable among those assigned to the Mediterranean diet than among those assigned to the low-fat diet (P<0.001 for the interaction among diabetes and Mediterranean diet and time with respect to fasting glucose levels).

Conclusions: Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate diets may be effective alternatives

to low-fat diets. The more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on glycemic control (with the Mediterranean diet) suggest that personal preferences and metabolic considerations might inform individualized tailoring of dietary interventions. ( number, NCT00160108.).”
“Background: Few options for transplantation currently exist for patients highly sensitized to HLA. This exploratory, open-label, phase 1-2, single-center study examined whether intravenous immune globulin selleckchem plus rituximab could reduce anti-HLA antibody levels and improve transplantation rates.

Methods: Between September

2005 and May 2007, a total of 20 highly sensitized patients (with a mean [+/-SD] T-cell panel-reactive antibody level, determined by use of the complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay, of 77+/-19% or with donor-specific antibodies) were enrolled and received treatment with intravenous immune globulin and rituximab. We recorded rates of transplantation, panel-reactive antibody levels, cross-matching results at the time of transplantation, survival Rucaparib price of patients and grafts, acute rejection episodes, serum creatinine values, adverse events and serious adverse events, and immunologic factors.

Results: The mean panel-reactive antibody level was 44+/-30% after the second infusion of intravenous immune globulin (P<0.001 for the comparison with the pretreatment level). At study entry, the mean time on dialysis among recipients of a transplant from a deceased donor was 144+/-89 months (range, 60 to 324). However, the time to transplantation after desensitization was 5+/-6 months (range, 2 to 18). Sixteen of the 20 patients (80%) received a transplant. At 12 months, the mean serum creatinine level was 1.5+/-1.

The location of sequencing primer annealing sites is indicated (S

The location of sequencing primer annealing sites is indicated (SS1 and SS2). The LY3023414 in vivo I-SceI recognition sites are shown flanking the cloning region. (B) DNA sequences of the pDOC-K, pDOC-H, pDOC-F, pDOC-P and pDOC-G inserts. Sequences specific to each plasmid are shown in the open box. The first codon of the epitope tags are highlighted in grey, and the stop codons are indicated. The following primer annealing sites are indicated: SS1 and SS2, used to sequence plasmid derivatives pre-recombination;

K-FWD, used for amplifying PCR products from Epigenetics inhibitor pDOC-K for generating gene deletions; CC1 and CC2, used for generating PCR products in order to confirm recombination; P-REV, used to generate PCR products for cloning into pDOC-C pre-recombination. The Flp recognition sequences are shown (Flp1 and Flp2), flanking the kanamycin cassette. The cloning regions, CR1 and CR2 are shown, adjacent to the I-SceI recognition sites. G-DOC recombineering protocol For generating gene:epitope tag fusions, the epitope tag and kanamycin cassette are amplified by PCR, using the relevant pDOC plasmid as a template.

A schematic outline of the cloning strategy for generating gene:epitope tag fusions is shown in Figure 3, panel A. The clockwise primer used for the PCR amplification is designed so that it contains between 25-50 bp of homology to the 3′ end of the target gene (H1), not including the Thiazovivin order stop codon, followed by 20 bp of sequence which anneals to the epitope tag sequence on the pDOC plasmid. This should be designed so that, after recombination with the target gene on the chromosome, the gene will be in frame with the coding sequence of the epitope tag. The downstream primer is designed so that it contains 25-50 bps of homology to the DNA sequence immediately downstream of the target gene (H2) and the primer sequence P-REV. The two primers are also designed with a restriction site at the 5′ end, so that, Adenosine triphosphate after amplification by PCR, the DNA product can be cloned into the cloning region of pDOC-C, between the two I-SceI

sites. Figure 3 Schematic of pDOC based recombination. PCR products are generated for gene coupling (A) or for gene deleting (B) and cloned into pDOC-C. Homologous regions (H1-4) on the PCR product recombine with the target gene on the chromosome. Recombinant clones are then checked by PCR using primers annealing to the CC1 and CC2 sequences, and sequences adjacent to the homology regions. For generating gene deletions, the kanamycin cassette from pDOC-K, is amplified by PCR. A schematic outline of the cloning strategy for generating gene deletions is shown in Figure 3, panel B. The clockwise primer used for the PCR amplification is designed so that it contains between 25-50 bp of homology to the DNA immediately upstream of the start of the gene (H3), followed by 20 bp of sequence which anneals to the K-FWD sequence on pDOC-K.

With this schedule we noted a mild and transitory toxicity which

With this schedule we noted a mild and transitory toxicity which was quickly reversible after treatment. Two rats in the WBI group lived more than 120 days. They were sacrificed and their brain was removed; there was no sign of tumor. It is not

possible to determine whether there was a technical problem during the tumor cells implantation or if the animals achieved a complete response after irradiation. There is a paucity of experimental data in literature on rat radiobiology. Different selleck screening library energy sources are used. Some groups work with a dedicated irradiator for small animals in their laboratory. This type of irradiator uses137Cesium or60Cobalt source and delivers gamma-rays [[9, 19, 20] and [21]]. As Lamproglou, even though his work was on normal brain [12], we decided to treat our rats with linear accelerator used in clinical practice. Animal irradiation MLN2238 manufacturer may be difficult to manage because of the limited availability of accelerators but the main advantage is to deliver the same energy type as in clinical practice. There are other advantages of using a nonradioactive x-ray-producing irradiator such as avoiding the increasing number of radioprotection controls as well as the potential source

hazard, disposal Cyclopamine in vivo and replacement; nonetheless the expected efficacy is the same whatever the radiation source chosen. This work does not answer the crucial question of optimal therapeutic regimen as it was conducted before our studies into the efficacy of local chemotherapy concomitant to radiation therapy in 9L glioma [22]. Another study confirms the reproducibility of the model as we obtained the same Pazopanib cost improvement in survival in the radiation group compared to the untreated group [18]. Therefore, this radiation therapy protocol has the potential to induce strong tumor debulking and facilitate concomitant chemotherapy treatment. Conclusion Many models of radiation therapy for

rat glioma are available, with different schedules. We describe a reproducible paradigm of fractionated radiotherapy for rat bearing a brain tumor, which reflects clinical practice, with a good compromise between feasibility and adaptation to chemotherapy radiosensitization studies. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Pierre Legras and Jerome Roux (Service Commun d’Animalerie Hospitalo-Universitaire, Angers, France) for skillful technical support with animals and the Radiotherapy Department of Paul Papin Center for technical help. Special thanks to Rachel Holden for her precious help. This work was supported by “”La Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale”". References 1.

Plasma etching was performed at 100 W for 90 min by using 71 4% O

Plasma etching was performed at 100 W for 90 min by using 71.4% O2 in the feed gas. Figure 2c shows SEM image of the top surface of VACNT/parylene composite

after plasma etching. Large numbers of bright spots were found, which were believed to be the extending CNT tips agglomerated together, sine parylene was etched faster than CNTs by oxidative plasma [9–11]. HRTEM observation (Figure 3d) confirms the protruding of CNTs from the above of the composite surface after plasma treatment. Alvocidib Furthermore, the marked area highlighted the opened CNT tips, which provides a direct proof for the opening of the exposed CNTs by oxidative plasma. Subsequently, HF acid was used to remove the VACNT/parylene composite from the Si substrate to produce a freestanding membrane. Another Idasanutlin 5-min plasma etching was performed

on the backside to expose the CNTs from the bottom surface. After these procedures, freestanding composite membranes with vertically aligned CNTs embedded in the parylene matrix were successfully fabricated. Raman spectroscopy was employed to characterize the structure of CNTs during membrane fabrication. Figure 4 shows Raman spectra of the as-synthesized CNT forest, the VACNT/parylene composite membrane, and the composite membrane after plasma etching treatment. The G-band at 1,590 cm-1 is associated with the E2g in-plane stretching vibration mode on the basal plane of graphite, which indicates the existence of crystalline graphitic carbon in the CNT samples. The peak at 1,304 cm-1 (D-band) is assigned to the imperfections in CNTs and amorphous carbon. The intensity ratio between G-band click here (I G) and D-band (I D) is sensitive to chemical modification and is a measure of the defects in CNTs. The I G/I D ratio is determined to be 2.56 for the as-synthesized CNTs, suggesting good crystallinity of the CNT array grown by water-assisted CVD. As shown in Figure 4, the G-band and D-band peak positions do not change, and the two bands (1,003 and 687 cm-1) ascribed to parylene appear fantofarone in the Raman spectrum of CNT array after parylene deposition. Although no distinctive change in terms of the Raman shift

of G-band or D-band is found, the I G/I D ratio decreases from 2.56 for the as-synthesized CNT to 1.02 for the composite membrane treated by plasma etching. The Raman analyses suggest that the deposition of parylene into the CNT array does not cause any damage to CNTs, while the plasma etching induced structural defects on CNT tips above the membrane surface. Figure 4 Raman spectra of the CNTs and the composite membranes. Raman spectra of the as-synthesized CNTs and VACNT/parylene (CP) composite membranes and composite membranes after plasma etching (PE). Figure 5 shows Ar permeances versus pressure gradient across the composite membrane at various temperatures. Obviously, at the temperature between 30°C to 70°C, the Ar permeance through the CNT membrane is independent of the applied pressure gradient.

Table 3 Transcripts associated with transport significantly alter

Table 3 Transcripts associated with transport significantly altered between 16M and 16MΔvjbR, with and without the treatment of C12-HSL to cells. BME Loci Gene Function Exponential Growth Phase Change fold Stationary Growth Phase Change (fold) STM     Δ vjbR /wt wt+AHL/wt Δ vjbR /Δ vjbR +AHL Δ vjbR

/wt wt+AHL/wt Δ vjbR /Δ vjbR +AHL   Amino Acid I 0114 ABC-Type AA Transport 1.6 2.1 – 1.8 1.5 –   I 0263 ABC-Type Leucine/Isoleucine/Valine/Threonine/Alanine PU-H71 ic50 Transport -1.8† – - 2.1 2.1 –   II 0038 D-Serine, D-Alanine, Glycine Transporter – -1.5† – -1.6† -1.8 – Ficht, u.p. II 0517 ABC-Type Branched Chain AA Transport System, AzlC -1.8 – - -2.2 -1.7† –   II 0873 ABC-Type High Affinity Branched Chain AA Transport System, LivF -2.0† -2.3 – - -1.5† –   II 0909 Glutamate, γ-Aminobutyrate Antiporter – - – -2.1 -1.7 –   I 0260 ABC-Type High-Affinity Branched Chain AA Transport, BraF – 2.1 – -1.5† – 3.0†   I 0642 Urea Transporter -2.3† -1.9 2.0† – - –   I 1022 ABC-Type Arginine, Ornithine Transporter 1.7† 2.8 2.2† – - –   I 1869 Homoserine this website Lactone Efflux Protein – -2.3 -3.1† -1.5† – 2.1†   II 0070 ABC-Type Branched Chain AA Transport System – 1.6†

– -2.5 -1.8† 1.9   II 0484 ABC-Type Spermidine/Putrescine Transport System -2.3 -2.5 – - -2.0 -2.3†   Carbohydrate I 1385 ABC-Type Lactose Transport System -2.6† -3.2 – - – - Ficht, u.p. II 0115 ABC-Type G3P Transport System -1.7† -3.2 – - – -   II 0301 ABC-Type Ribose Transport System, RbsC 1.5† – - -1.9 – -   II 1096 MFS Family, Putative Tartrate Transporter 1.7† 2.6 – - – -   I 0556 MFS Transporter ?-Ketoglutarate Permease -2.4† -2.5 – - – -2.2†   II 0300 ABC-Type Ribose Transport System, RbsA -1.9 -1.8† – 1.7 – 1.6† [22] II 0362 ABC-Type Xylose Transport System, XylH -1.6† -2.5 -3.0† – - –   II 0700 Galactoside Transport System, MglC 1.6† – -1.8† -2.1 – 5.5†   II 0701 ABC-Type Ribose Miconazole Transport System, RbsC 2.4† 2.2 – - – 2.6† [33] II 0702 ABC-Type Simple Sugar Transport System 1.5† – -3.6† – -2.8 -5.1†   II 0838

Succinoglycan Biosynthesis Transport Protein, ExoT -2.0 -4.3 -4.2† – -1.7 –   II 0851 Exopolysaccharide Export, ExoF Precursor -2.1 – 2.1† – - –   Defense Mechanism I 0361 ABC-Type Antimicrobial Peptide Transporter System, FtsX -1.9 – - – -1.6† –   I 0472 ABC-Type Multidrug Transport System – 2.0 – -1.6† -1.5† –   I 0656 ABC-Type Multidrug Transporter 1.7 2.3† – 1.6† – -   I 1743 ABC-Type Multidrug Transporter System – - – -1.8† -1.7 –   I 1934 ABC-Type Oligopeptide Transport System -1.6† -1.9 – - – -   II 0199 ABC-Type Oligopeptide Transport System, OppF -1.5† -2.8 – - – -   II 0205 ABC-Type Oligo/Dipeptide Transport System, DppF -1.9 -2.1† – 1.6 – -   II 0285 ABC-Type Oligo/Dipeptide/Nickel Transport System, DppB – - – 1.7 1.6† – [31] II 0473 Cation/Multidrug Efflux Pump -1.8 -1.5† – 1.8 – -   II 0801 ABC-Type Multidrug Transport System -2.

PubMedCrossRef 9

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Wang W, Li W, Zou H: Composition, diversity, and LY2835219 molecular weight origin of the bacterial community in Grass carp intestine. Plos One 2012,7(2):e30440.PubMedCrossRef 16. van Kessel M, Dutilh B, Neveling K, Kwint M, Veltman J, Flik G, Jetten M, Klaren P, Op den Camp H: Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.). AMB Express 2011,1(1):41.PubMedCrossRef 17. Roeselers G, Mittge EK, Stephens WZ, Parichy DM, Cavanaugh CM, Sulfite dehydrogenase Guillemin K, Rawls JF: Evidence for a core gut microbiota in the zebrafish. ISME J 2011,5(10):1595–1608.PubMedCrossRef

18. Ringø E, Sperstad S, Myklebust R, Refstie S, Krogdahl A: Characterisation of the microbiota associated with intestine of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) – The effect of fish meal, standard soybean meal and a bioprocessed soybean meal. Aquaculture 2006,261(3):829–841.CrossRef 19. Fjellheim AJ, Playfoot KJ, Skjermo J, Vadstein O: Vibrionaceae dominates the microflora antagonistic towards Listonella anguillarum in the intestine of cultured Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) larvae. Aquaculture 2007,269(1–4):98–106.CrossRef 20. Brunvold L, Sandaa R-A, Mikkelsen H, Welde E, Bleie H, Bergh O: Characterisation of bacterial communities associated with early stages of intensively reared cod (Gadus morhua) using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Aquaculture 2007,272(1–4):319–327.CrossRef 21. Reid HI, Treasurer JW, Adam B, Birkbeck TH: Analysis of bacterial populations in the gut of developing cod larvae and identification of Vibrio logei, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus as pathogens of cod larvae. Aquaculture 2009,288(1–2):36–43.CrossRef 22.

Materials and methods This study was approved by the CEROG (Frenc

Materials and methods This study was approved by the CEROG (French Ethics Committee for Research in Obstetrics and Gynecology). Study design We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of consecutive women who underwent laparoscopy for acute pelvic pain at the gynecologic ED of the Poissy-St Germain Hospital, France, a teaching hospital serving a large population. This historical cohort was studied between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2006. One resident and one senior gynecologist are available at the gynecologic ED around the clock. In France, women with acute pelvic

pain are evaluated either S63845 in general EDs, in which case they are then referred to a gynecologic ED, or directly in PCI-34051 clinical trial gynecologic EDs, to which all women have free access. Thus, all GSK2118436 price patients with suspected

gynecologic emergencies are seen in gynecologic EDs. Study population All patients seen at our gynecologic ED for acute pelvic pain of less than 7 days’ duration and who underwent emergency laparoscopy were included. Exclusion criteria were hemodynamic shock, pregnancy of more than 13 gestational weeks, secondary laparoscopy for ectopic pregnancy initially managed with methotrexate, surgery within the last month, or virgin patients. Among patients who did not undergo emergency laparoscopy, those who were pregnant were followed until a definitive diagnostic was made [12]. In nonpregnant

patients, when the findings of all examinations were thought to be normal and the pain subsided with appropriate analgesia by the end of the visit or hospitalization, a diagnosis of idiopathic acute pelvic pain was made. After discharge, the patients were encouraged to return to our ED in case of pain recurrence. Study protocol In all patients, a nurse performed an initial assessment including measurement PRKD3 of vital signs (Heart rate, arterial pressure and temperature), a urine hCG test and a pain intensity measurement using a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). Then, the obstetrics/gynecology resident on duty performed standardized physical and TVUS examinations. If needed, additional investigations were performed (laboratory tests, complete ultrasound examination by a certified obstetrician/gynecologist, computed tomography). Residents were between their third and eight semester of formation in gynecology and obstetrics and were non titular of ultrasound diploma. The senior gynecologist decided whether to perform emergency laparoscopy based on all the available data.

Every 3 months the aggregated data would be stored in the kumban

Every 3 months the aggregated data would be stored in the kumban (through the TSC), to support PLX4032 research buy the bi-annual analyses and discussions between district, kumban and villages. Once a year the results of these discussions would be made official and forwarded

to the provincial level. Looking for sustainability: integrating resource monitoring into the “Participatory Land Use Planning” national process Once the monitoring system, including results and activities, is embedded into the local administrative structure it requires political support to power the system and provide sustainability. During the project’s life we only proposed ways to embed the monitoring tools into existing administrative this website structures. However, we have not received information as to whether the villagers and kumban authorities have adopted the system or not. The Government of Laos has, in the past, introduced different LUP policies to alleviate poverty, with some success (Lestrelin

et al. 2011). The most recent one, the PLUP, is intended to give villagers a stronger role in the negotiation process of village boundaries, land zoning and land management (MAF and NLMA 2010). It also recognises the key role of the kumban in the LUP process, instead of the district as in previous LUP exercises. With the new role given to local communities, in association with the kumban, there is more likelihood of the proposed participatory monitoring system being sustained. PLUP follows 9 steps (MAF and NLMA 2010): (1) preparation; (2) socio-economic, land and

forest data collection; (3) delineation of village and village cluster boundaries; (4) village and village cluster forest and agricultural land use zoning; (5) village and village cluster land management plans; (6) land data record keeping and digital mapping; (7) land registration and titling in rural villages; (8) village and village cluster networks and networking; and (9) monitoring and evaluation. The villages of a kumban and the district authorities together designate the various zones as part of PLUP (step 4). The zones are the areas devoted to protection, conservation, economic activities (plantation and agriculture), infrastructure next (village development) etc. They then produce a 5-year management plan for each zone. PLUP in Muangmuay Kumban had not reached the monitoring step (step 9) by the end of the project (December 2010); it had only been implemented up to step 6 (more about the PLUP process in Bourgoin and Castella 2011; Bourgoin et al. 2012; Lestrelin et al. 2011). However, we were still able to discuss how PLUP could utilize the proposed monitoring system (Table 4). The system can be used as a tool to assess the impact of management decisions on local livelihoods (poverty) and natural habitats (biodiversity), based on the zones proposed within PLUP (e.g. residential areas, conservation forest, sacred forest, agriculture zone).