g. Hormonema dematioides, Phoma sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus adeliensis). The abundance of the dominant clade (# 12, P. chrysogenum group) in the Index-2 Tucidinostat in vitro building did not change following remediation (Figure 3, Additional file 2 Table S1). Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first time that the effect of moisture and moisture damage remediation on indoor fungal assemblages has been studied using a whole community approach and source tracking. It is also the first study to compare fungal community composition
using a large selection of species-specific qPCR assays and clone library sequencing in combination with culture. We found increased fungal diversity in one of the studied buildings
with moisture damage, Selonsertib ic50 while in the second damaged building, high numbers of Penicillium were present. In neither building did we find a concomitant increase in culturable fungal concentrations or fungal biomass in surface dust. A majority of the fungal species isolated from contaminated building materials was not prevalent in the pre-remediation dust samples collected from those buildings. Methodological comparison indicated that cultivation in combination with a large qPCR panel, failed to detect a majority of the fungi in indoor samples; however, the most abundant species appeared to be detected by all methods. Clone library sequencing, to the extent used here, was found to be less sensitive than qPCR for detecting individual species. Fungal diversity in dust samples Cloning and sequencing studies revealed an average of 54 observed and 146 estimated species-level phylotypes (OTUs) per sample. This level of diversity is similar to that observed previously using molecular methods in floor Mephenoxalone dust and indoor air filter samples [21–23] and higher than that detected in outdoor air filter samples [27, 28]. The dominant genera we observed in dust and material samples were in agreement with previous
studies using cultivation [29–32]; Aureobasidium, Cladosporium and Penicillium were the most prevalent genera in dust according to molecular and culture-independent methods. These and other common indoor mold genera, including PHA-848125 clinical trial Aspergillus, Botrytis, Epicoccum, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Ulocladium, Wallemia and Phoma/Sphaeropsidales-group fungi accounted for 95-96% of total CFUs and qPCR CE counts and approximately 40% of clones in nucITS libraries. The remaining 60% of nucITS clones, however, accounted for almost 90% of the total diversity in the sequence material, showing that a vast diversity of indoor fungi remain uncharacterized by cultivation or targeted molecular methods.