Administration of yokukansan ameliorated not only the TD-induced aggressive
behavior and neurological symptoms but also degeneration of the cerebral cells. NVP-BEZ235 ic50 These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of yokukansan on degeneration in various brain cells might be closely related to the amelioration of aggression and neurological symptoms in TD rats. “
“Neurogenesis and angiogenesis are two important processes that may contribute to the repair of brain injury after stroke. This study was designed to investigate whether transplantation of human embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) into cortical peri-infarction 24 h after ischemia effects cell proliferation in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and angiogenesis in the peri-infarct zone. NSCs were prepared from embryonic human brains at 8 weeks gestation. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of adult rats. Animals were randomly divided into two groups (n = 30, each) at 24 h after ischemia: NSC-grafted and medium-grafted groups. Angiogenesis inhibitor Toluidine blue staining and 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) or von Willebrand factor (vWF) immunohistochemistry were performed at 7, 14 and 28 days after transplantation. NSC transplantation increased the number of BrdU-positive cells in the ischemic ipsilateral
SVZ compared with the medium control at 7 days (P < 0.01). Resminostat This difference in SVZ cell proliferation persisted at 14 days (P < 0.01), but was not significant at 28 days (P > 0.05). In addition, angiogenesis, as indicated by BrdU and vWF staining in cortical peri-infarct regions,
was augmented by 46% and 65% in NSC-grafted rats versus medium-grafted rats at 7 and 14 days, respectively (P < 0.05). However, this increase became non-significant at 28 days (P > 0.05). Our results indicate that NSC transplantation enhances endogenous cell proliferation in the SVZ and promotes angiogenesis in the peri-infarct zone, even if it is performed in the acute phase of ischemic injury. “
“K. Kemp, D. Gordon, D. C. Wraith, E. Mallam, E. Hartfield, J. Uney, A. Wilkins and N. Scolding (2011) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology37, 166–178 Fusion between human mesenchymal stem cells and rodent cerebellar Purkinje cells Aims: We explored whether cellular fusion and heterokaryon formation between human and rodent cells in the cerebellum of mice occurs after intravenous injection of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The influence of central nervous system inflammation on this process was also assessed. In addition, we examined whether tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma, factors associated with inflammation, increase cellular fusion between human MSCs and rodent cerebellar neurons in vitro.