If the stenosis affects subclavian artery, changed hemodynamic spectra suggesting subclavian steal syndrome are recorded (Fig. S1 supplementary file). When occlusion of the subclavian artery sets in, in ipsilateral vertebral artery hemodynamic spectra are completely inverse (Fig. S2 supplementary file), and in the contralateral one it is accelerated. Transcranial Doppler of the Willis circle and vertebrobasilar system shows redistribution of the hemodynamics. GCA, is also known as temporal arteritis or cranial arteritis, is the most Selleck ABT199 common form of vasculitis that occurs in adults . Almost all patients who develop GCA are over
the age of 50. It is a granulomas arteritis affecting large or medium-sized artery, usually CP-868596 cost temporal or ophthalmic artery. It has an acute or subacute start. Symptoms are headache, jaw pain, blurred or double vision. If the disease is undiagnosed complications like blindness and, less often, stroke may occur. Standard test for diagnosing GCA is biopsy of the temporal artery. More samples are needed because the inflammation may not occur in all parts of the artery. Prompt treatment with corticosteroids relieves symptoms and prevents loss of vision. Ultrasound finding will show swelling of the arterial wall presenting as a hypoechoic dark halo around the color coded flow in the temporal, ophthalmic artery or external carotid artery  and . The disease is segmental, therefore, its
visualization is suitable for new localization of the biopsy. Due to noninvasiveness it is suitable
for monitoring the disease. During healing regression of the dark halo will be visible parallel with the restitution of the color coded flow. Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a fibrous thickening of the arterial wall, causing segmental narrowing of arteries in the kidneys (in 75% of patients), carotid or vertebral arteries and the arteries of the abdomen . It is an autosomal dominant disorder, affecting up to 5% of the population, in 2/3 the internal carotid artery (ICA), usually the C2 segment. It is usually asymptomatic, but if dissection occurs, it causes aneurysm and occlusion and becomes symptomatic. There are three types of fibromuscular dysplasia: intimal, medial, and subadventitial (perimedial) of the arterial wall. These three types of FMD are not easily differentiated by findings on angiography. The medial type of FMD is by far the most common (about 80–85%) and it is classically diagnosed on the basis of a “string of beads” appearance on angiography. This appearance is explained by the presence of luminal stenosis alternating with aneurysmal dilatation. Classically, the intimal form of FMD is associated with smooth focal stenoses on angiography. Type 1 is the most common form. In 6–12% of patients with arterial fibroplasia, a long tubular stenosis may be seen. This form is most commonly seen with the intimal form.