2 However, more recent studies have clearly demonstrated that only AML carrying CEBPAdm (but not CEBPAsm) represent a distinct entity. , , ,  and  This view is supported by the following observations: i) in several clinical trials only AML with CEBPAdm emerged as an independent prognostic factor for favorable outcome; ii) only CEBPAdm was mutually exclusive with NPM1 mutations (that also define a provisional entity in the 2008 WHO classification); iii) only CEBPAdm AML exhibited a distinct gene expression signature. How can we explain that AML with CEBPAdm has selleck chemicals llc a better outcome than AML with
CEBPAsm? This is probably due to the fact that concomitant mutations (e.g. NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutations) are virtually not detectable in AML with CEBPAdm. Based on the above considerations, only AML with CEBPAdm (but not CEBPAsm) should be regarded as PCI-32765 in vitro a separate entity in a future formulation of the WHO classification and as a prognostic category in the current risk classification. 24 Multilineage dysplasia can be observed in CEBPAdm AML but does not appear to impact significantly on the biological, cytogenetic and prognostic features of this leukemia subtype. 89 These findings further support the view that, if CEBPAdm AML presents with multidysplasia changes, it
should be categorized as a distinct entity (CEBPAdm AML) according to its mutation status rather than being included (as currently suggested) in the category of “AML with myelodysplasia-related changes”. 89 Prognosis of AML with CEBPAdm is moreless similar to that of NPM1-mutated AML without FLT3-ITD. 24 Accordingly, no allogeneic HSCT is usually recommended for AML with CEBPAdm in first complete remission. However, it should be underlined that such a recommendation is only inferred from indirect evidence, because Silibinin no demonstration has been so far provided that CEBPAdm AML does not benefit from an allogeneic HSCT. Because the CEBPAdm cases represent only a small percentage of CN-AML, clarification of this
issue will require meta-analyses and large intergroup trials. This group of mutations includes those affecting the IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A and TET2 genes. With the exception of TET2 mutations, all other mutations have been identified by massively parallel sequencing. The prognostic impact of these mutations still remains investigational. The NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) genes encode for cytosolic enzymes that catalyze a reaction in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. They appear to function at a crossroads of cellular metabolism in lipid synthesis, cellular defense against oxidative stress, oxidative respiration, and oxygen-sensing signal transduction. 90 IDH1 mutations: They were first discovered by massively parallel sequencing of the entire genome of the leukemic cells and matched normal skin from a patient with CN-AML.