In frontal regions70 there is a similar duality expressed in the elaboration of granular and pyramidal cells in the selleckchem paleocortical and archicortical trends, respectively, and a parallel emphasis on the trends’ respective representations of motor control of the face/head/neck versus limbs and trunk. Linking these observations to the theories described above, the hierarchical view is reinforced by
the documented short-range projections from each region to nearby regions of both Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical greater and lesser degrees of differentiation. Reinforcing the topographically organized most patterns of frontoposterior projections described above, it is further important to note that these patterns of long-range projections Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical honor the level of cytoarchitectonic differentiation across comparable anterior and posterior developments within each trend, and also connect similarly evolved regions between paleocortical and archicortical trends. These relationships have been summarized elsewhere,71,72 and are further detailed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and depicted elegantly in multiple works by Pandya and colleagues (for a recent update, see ref 46). Several functional distinctions map either explicitly or implicitly onto this neuroanatomical duality (Table I). For
example, the paleocortical and archicortical
trends have Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical been seen as the potential substrate of object versus spatial processing, respectively,46 following the “what versus where” distinction noted above. Randall O’Reilly73 argues that this distinction may better be broadened to consider “what versus how” Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical processing, similar to the hypothesis of Goodale and Milner.60 Petrides sees the dorsolateral (archicortical) system as more critically engaged in “monitoring of information in working memory” while the ventrolateral (paleocortical) system is more involved in “ active judgments on information held in posterior cortical association regions that are necessary for active retrieval and encoding of information” (p 793).74 Gary Goldberg suggested that the paleocortical system mediates “responsive” control over action, while the archicortical system mediates “projectional” control over action,75 and this Entinostat idea is highly compatible with the distinction that Frith and Done76 made between “stimulus intentions” and “willed intentions” in describing two distinct routes to action (which incidentally can help explain both unusual phenomena such as the “alien hand sign” seen rarely with lesions to the archicortical divisions of the premotor system, and certain hallucinatory behavior in syndromes like schizophrenia).