, 2011, Nor et al , 2013 and Nor et al , 2011) E4 and E5 protein

, 2011, Nor et al., 2013 and Nor et al., 2011). E4 and E5 proteins contribute indirectly to genome amplification success

learn more because they modify the cellular environment. E5 is a small transmembrane protein with a cytoplasmatic C-terminus (Fig. 10). It is thought to function by inducing ligand-independent dimerization and activation of receptor protein tyrosine kinases, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (DiMaio and Petti, 2013). Hence, E5 contributes to genome amplification success through its ability to stabilize EGFR and its role in up-regulation of mitogenic signal transduction. Many but not all HPVs encode for E5, and this viral oncoprotein contributes to some early steps of viral transformation but it is not necessary for malignant progression and/or maintenance of the transformed phenotype since E5 is not generally expressed in cervical carcinomas. While bovine papillomavirus (BPV)-1 E5 protein interacts with PDGF (platelet derived growth factor), this is not an activity of the HPV E5 protein. BPV-1 E5 protein (which functions as a disulphide cross-linked dimer) is phylogenetically unrelated to the E5 proteins of alpha group HPV types

(which form hexameric transmembrane pores, placing it within the virus-encoded “viroporin” family). It was found that high-risk human papillomavirus http://www.selleckchem.com/products/PF-2341066.html E5 oncoprotein displays channel-forming activity sensitive to small-molecule inhibitors (Wetherill et al., 2012). The productive this website phase of the HPV life cycle occurs in the terminally differentiated layers of the stratified epithelium, where viral

particles are assembled and shed. Differentiation of infected cells induces genome amplification and a remarkable increase in late gene expression resulting in packaging of the viral genome and virus release (Doorbar et al., 2012). The E4 protein is abundantly expressed in the upper epithelial layers in cells that support viral genome amplification. E4 is primarily involved in some aspect of virus release or transmission, as it was shown to induce the disruption of keratin structure, and in promoting proper viral assembly (Doorbar et al., 1991 and Wang et al., 2004). During the productive HPV life cycle, the genome is maintained as an episome but in almost all high-grade lesions and tumors, the viral genome is integrated into the host genome. The viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 are expressed in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias associated with HPV infection (Bodily and Laimins, 2011 and Doorbar et al., 2012). Expression of E6 and E7 is transcriptionally regulated by E2 during the productive HPV life cycle.

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