19, 22 All patients participating in the eight clinical trials si

19, 22 All patients participating in the eight clinical trials signed appropriate consent forms and all studies were approved by the institutions’ Human Subjects Committees. In this analysis, patients with HCV genotypes 1-6 who were assigned 48 weeks of interferon alfa-2a monotherapy, peginterferon alfa-2a monotherapy, or peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin combination therapy, and had baseline and posttreatment Selleck GDC 0068 (i.e., week 72) biopsies, were included. The impact on histologic response was evaluated by three categories of virologic response: (1) degree of virologic response: SVR, relapsers,

patients with breakthrough, and nonresponders; (2) time to HCV RNA undetectability: rapid viral response (RVR; weeks 0-4), complete early virologic response (cEVR; weeks 5-12), 24-week undetectable (weeks 13-24), and never undetectable; and (3) duration of viral suppression: none, <24 weeks, 24 to 48 weeks, and 48 weeks. Because HCV RNA was assessed only at certain time points (i.e., baseline, weeks 4, 12, 24, 48, 60, and 72), a precise measure of the duration of viral suppression could not be obtained. For this reason, patients were grouped to the

duration of viral suppression categories based on the midpoints of the minimum and maximum duration of suppression according to the assessment schedule. The Wnt tumor virologic response categories were defined as follows: SVR (undetectable HCV RNA at 24-weeks after end of treatment); relapsers (undetectable HCV RNA at end of treatment but detectable at 24 weeks after end of treatment); breakthroughs (initially undetectable HCV RNA but later detectable while on treatment);

and nonresponders (HCV RNA detectable learn more throughout treatment; never became undetectable). Missing HCV RNA test results at the end of treatment or 24 weeks after the end of treatment were counted as HCV RNA detectable. Because the analysis included only patients with both baseline and posttreatment biopsies, very few patients had missing HCV RNA test results. Histologic outcome was determined on the basis of changes in the METAVIR NIF activity and fibrosis scores from baseline to 24 weeks after the end of treatment. Patients were classified with respect to the activity grade and fibrosis stage as either: improved (decrease of ≥1 categories from baseline to follow-up); stable (no change in category from baseline to follow-up); or worsened (increase of ≥1 categories from baseline to follow-up). Biopsies from all patients in the eight clinical trials were evaluated in a blinded fashion by a single pathologist. All liver biopsies were required to be a minimum of 1 cm in size. All biopsy samples had a minimum of four portal tracts. Biopsies that were <1 cm in size or had less than four portal tracts were considered inadequate and were excluded.

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