[122] The bulk of the expenses attributable to migraine derive fr

[122] The bulk of the expenses attributable to migraine derive from its high population prevalence and indirect costs due to occupational disability[123] rather than direct health care costs, which are lower for migraine than for the other neurological conditions. During the past few years, there has been a concerted effort to raise awareness of the enormous public health impact of migraine. In recognition of its high prevalence and burden,

as well as the limited devotion of research resources to migraine, the World Health Organization recently launched a global campaign to reduce the burden of headache (Lifting The Burden 2).[45] This review documents the initial success in terms of the rapid growth of information on the magnitude of migraine in areas of the world that had been previously underrepresented. Despite the high magnitude of disability associated AZD9668 mw with migraine, Ibrutinib chemical structure only approximately one half of those individuals who suffer from debilitating migraine seek professional help.[28, 113, 124] The gap in treatment is remarkably similar across the world despite variation in health systems across the world. Of those who do seek treatment, many do not continue in treatment. Only a minority of those with migraine in the general

population ever seek treatment with clinicians with expertise in headache. As expected, those who seek professional treatment are characterized by greater severity, longer duration, more disability, and more comorbidity.[5, 28] In light of the overwhelming evidence regarding the tremendous burden of migraine, leaders in the headache field have called for increased awareness of the availability of preventive efforts. Operational criteria for prevention have been developed based on headache frequency and attack-related disability, yet few of those with migraine have received preventive interventions.[113] For example, only 25% of those with migraine in the AMPP in the U.S. actually seek professional treatment and receive appropriate medications.[113] selleck products There has been substantial progress in the descriptive epidemiology of migraine

during the past decade. The introduction of the ICHD-II and increasing awareness of the high magnitude, burden, and impact of migraine have stimulated numerous studies of population-based data on the prevalence, correlates, and impact of migraine. In particular, there has been growing international research on migraine in children, and a greater focus on longitudinal studies of the stability, risk factors, and course of migraine. Although the bulk of population research has been conducted in Europe and the U.S., there is growing work on the epidemiology of migraine in Asia, the Middle East, and South America. Across the 19 studies of adults that employed the ICDH-II criteria, the aggregate weighted estimates of the 12-month prevalence of definite migraine are 11.

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