1 macrophages in phagocytosis; however, no significant cytotoxicity in survival was observed in these cells
. We then studied the potential effect of surface modification on QD-mediated cytotoxicity to macrophages. A small number of J774A.1 cells in 6-well plates (5.0 × 104/well) were seeded and treated with QD particles precoated with PEG, PEG-NH2, or PEG-COOH, and the cells were then observed for 5 days. As shown in Figure 1A, the number of cells upon QD-PEG or QD-PEG-COOH treatment was 21.4 × 104 and 19.3 × 104, similar to that in the control (P > 0.05); however, the number of cells treated with QD-PEG-NH2 was 4.7 × 104, much lower than that in the control (P < 0.001). Moreover, the relative cellular flat surface area was measured with the Image-Pro-Plus software (Media Emricasan in vitro Cybernetics, Rockville, MD, USA), and the results indicated that the average size per cell was reduced by approximately 20% compared to the control (Figure 1A,B, P < 0.05). To tease apart the mechanisms responsible for the cytotoxicity of QD-PEG-NH2 to J774A.1 macrophages, we individually assessed cell proliferation and apoptosis. The BrdU incorporation check details assay indicated that the cell division of J774A.1 cells upon QD-PEG-NH2 exposure for 24 h was greatly diminished by approximately
40% compared to the control (P < 0.001), and cell growth was rarely affected in cells treated with QD-PEG or QD-PEG-COOH (Figure 1C), suggesting a robust inhibition of QD-PEG-NH2 on cell proliferation. To exclude
possible involvement of cell death induced by QD-PEG-NH2, we therefore surveyed Doramapimod nmr apoptosis and necrosis with FACS analysis after PI and FITC-conjugated Annexin V staining. Annexin V binds to phosphatidylserine that localizes on the outer surface of cell membrane, which is an early event in apoptosis and PI stains nucleus of necrotic cells . As shown in Figure 2, the proportion of cells representing early apoptosis (Q4 region, Annexin V+PI−), necrosis (Q1 region, Annexin V-PI+), and late apoptosis or necrosis (Q2 region, Annexin V+PI+) remained similar among different treatments after 24 h compared Rebamipide to the control, demonstrating that QDs with these kinds of surface modifications exerted no cell death to J774A.1 cells. Figure 1 Biological influence of QDs on J774A.1 cells. (A) Bright field images of J774A.1 cells treated with QDs with different surface modifications at 47 μg/ml for 5 days (×40). (B) The bar graph represents the relative cellular flat surface area of J774A.1 cells treated with 47 μg/ml QDs coated with PEG-NH2 for 5 days (n = 50). (C) Cell proliferation was evaluated with the BrdU incorporation assay upon treatment with 47 μg/ml QDs with different surface modifications for 24 h (n = 6). Asterisk indicates P < 0.001. Figure 2 Cell death of J774A.1 cells in response to QD treatment. Representative images of cell death of J774A.