1 – 5% of culturable

1 – 5% of culturable

buy Ferrostatin-1 soil bacterial species can carry out denitrification [34]. This conclusion is supported by our BLASTN results, which found only two sequences from either metagenome that matched with a N metabolism gene. With the BLASTX comparison to the SEED BAY 11-7082 database, however, over 1% of our sequences from each metagenome matched with nitrogen metabolism subsystems. The fact that we found no differences in nitrogen metabolism EGT relative abundance after NO3- addition suggests that microbial populations involved in N cycling did not shift in the 20 hours following exposure to a NO3- pulse. This lack of treatment response could be due to insufficient time between treatment initiation and sampling (i.e. populations were slow to respond to selleck chemical the treatment). However, we did see other EGT changes, suggesting that some microbial populations grew and experienced a detectable community shift in response to acute changes in NO3- concentration. The initial microbial community response to NO3- in our metagenomes was toward organisms that contained stress response, carbohydrate, and fatty acids, lipids, and isoprenoid EGT matches (Figure 1). The stress response EGT that was higher in the +NO3- metagenome was for an alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C-like protein. The gene

for alkyl hydroperoxide reducates, subunit C is upregulated by NO3- exposure after only 30 minutes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris, suggesting that such increases in this and other oxidative stress genes may be a general stress response by the bacteria [35]. Within the carbohydrates category, http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/cobimetinib-gdc-0973-rg7420.html one EGT match that was higher in the +NO3- metagenome was for fermentation. Recently, there has been evidence for fermentation that is coupled to NO3- reduction in both bacteria and fungi [36, 37]. Fermentation in the +NO3- microcosms may have been particularly prominent for the fungi, because a switch to NO3- -coupled fermentation as the primary source of energy for soil fungi under anoxic conditions has been suggested [36]. The sequencing effort described here

also showed changes to the proportional representation of taxonomic EGTs. There were highly significant increases in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria EGTs in the +NO3- metagenome. Similarly, using freshwater microcosms, Barlett and Leff [38] found an increase in Alphaproteobacteria abundance when NO3- was present as a N source and suggested a competitive advantage to this group of organisms under these conditions. Under anoxic conditions, such as our microcosms, higher physiological activity and substrate uptake have been reported in several Alphaproteobacteria species when NO3- or NO2- were present as an electron acceptor [39]. Therefore, in our microcosms, there could have been a competitive advantage to the Alphaproteobacteria due to greater growth compared to other facultative organisms in an anoxic environment with abundant NO3-.

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