02) Growth-retarded infants had 41 2% lower IGF-I (P < 0 0001

02). Growth-retarded infants had 41.2% lower IGF-I (P < 0.0001) and 27.3% lower leptin (P = 0.04) than did infants

with normal growth. Offspring of primiparae had reduced IGF-I and insulin concentrations, and their cortisol concentrations were 25% higher (P = 0.05). Male newborns had lower concentrations of IGF-I, leptin, and insulin than did female newborns.

Conclusions: UNIMMAP supplementation had sex-specific effects on cord IGF-I and leptin concentrations that were of unclear clinical significance. Other pathways may have been involved in the action of UNIMMAP on fetal growth. The specific hormonal pattern in primiparae could be related to constrained fetal growth. Confirmatory studies are warranted. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials. gov as NCT00642408. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1649-58.”
“Recent animal and human studies have raised concern www.selleckchem.com/products/jq-ez-05-jqez5.html that exposure to anesthetic agents in children may cause neuronal damage and be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Exposure of young animals to anesthetic agents above threshold doses and durations during a critical neurodevelopmental buy Quisinostat window in the absence of concomitant painful stimuli causes widespread neuronal apoptosis and subsequent abnormal behaviors. The relevance of such animal data to humans is unknown. Untreated neonatal pain and stress also are associated with enhanced neuronal death and subsequent

maladaptive behaviors, which can be prevented by exposure to these same anesthetic agents. Retrospective observational human

studies have suggested a dose-dependent association between multiple anesthetic exposures in early childhood and subsequent learning AG-881 cell line disability, the causality of which is unknown. Ongoing prospective investigations are underway, the results of which may clarify if and what neurodevelopmental risks are associated with pediatric anesthesia. No change in current practice is yet indicated.”
“Background: Maternal diet has been associated with fetal growth outcomes; however, evidence is scarce on the role of dietary quality.

Objective: The objective was to assess the effect of diet quality during the first trimester of pregnancy, as measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) adapted for pregnancy, on fetal growth.

Design: We studied 787 women and their newborns from a Spanish cohort study. Diet quality was assessed by using a modification of the AHEI. Adjusted birth weight, birth length, and head circumference were used as continuous outcomes. We used a customized model to define fetal growth restriction in weight, length, and head circumference.

Results: After adjustment of multivariate models, a positive association was observed between diet quality and adjusted birth weight and adjusted birth length. The greatest differences were found between the fourth and first quintiles of the AHEI. Newborns of women in the fourth quintile were on average 126.3 g (95% CI: 38.5, 213.

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