0; elution buffer). Fractions that mainly contained rPnxIIIA were monitored
and confirmed by SDS-PAGE. For purification of rPnxIIIE, buy Crenolanib E. coli BL21-AI cultures harboring pET-Pnx3E were extracted in a binding buffer containing 6 M guanidine hydrochloride, and the extracts were purified with an elution buffer containing 6 M urea, similar to the method used to purify rPnxIIIA. The solvent of rPnxIIIA and rPnxIIIE was exchanged to a buffer containing 20 mM Tris-HCl and 150 mM NaCl by using FPLC and dialysis, respectively. Purification of native rPnxIA and rPnxIIA was performed briefly according to previous described methods . Generation of deletion mutants of rPnxIIIA variants To compare the function of the unique selleck products repeat sequences
in the rPnxIIIA variants, deletion mutant rPnxIIIA expression vectors were constructed. In brief, deletion mutant expression vectors pBAD-Pnx3A209, which lacked amino acid residues of a repeat sequence at position 287-735 (Figure 1B; Repeat 1), and pBAD-Pnx3A197, which lacked amino acid residues of a repeat sequence at position 1097-1666, (Figure 1B; Repeats 2 and 3) were directly constructed using the wild-type protein expression vector pBAD-Pnx3A as the template with primer pairs pnx3A-209-f and pnx3A-209-r and pnx3A-197-f and pnx3A-197-r, respectively. A PrimeSTAR Mutagenesis Basal Kit (Takara Bio) was used to create these deletion mutant expression vectors. Finally, BAY 73-4506 in vitro pBAD-Pnx3A151, which lacked both repeat sequences, was constructed with the primer pair pnx3A-197-f and pnx3A-197-r with pBAD-Pnx3A209 as the PCR template. All the constructs were confirmed with DNA sequencing. The expression and purification of rPnxIIIA variants were performed in the same manner as that used for the wild-type rPnxIIIA. Cytotoxicity assay The cytotoxicity of the recombinant Pnx proteins toward J774A.1 cells was determined via a LDH
release assay that was performed according to the methods of Basler et al.  with minor modifications. Prior to incubation, the concentration of J774A.1 cells in a 96-well plate was adjusted 1 × FAD 105 cells per well. The cells were grown in fresh DMEM supplemented with 20 mM CaCl2 and appropriate antibiotics. rPnxIIIA was added to the wells such that its concentrations were 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/ml of the final concentrations. The plate was incubated at 37°C in 5% CO2 for up to 24 h. LDH release from the J774A.1 cells was measured at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h by using the supernatant from the treated cells; a cytotoxicity detection kit (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) was used for this purpose. For the comparison of cytotoxicity among rPnxIA, rPnxIIA, and rPnxIIIA, 1.0 μg/ml of each recombinant protein was incubated with the J774A.1 cells for 4 h. Thereafter, LDH release from the J774A.1 cells was measured. Furthermore, to assess the effect of existence of CD11a on inhibition of rPnxIIIA-induced cytolysis, LDH release from the J774A.