The idea of a surgical “solution” to migraine is inherently attra

The idea of a surgical “solution” to migraine is inherently attractive to patients. Interest in surgical approaches to migraine has been motivated by serendipitous improvement in headaches noted in patients who have undergone various plastic surgery

“forehead rejuvenation” procedures. These procedures are based on the premise that contraction of facial or other muscles impinges on peripheral branches of the trigeminal nerve. The procedures involved are often referred to collectively as “migraine deactivation surgery,” although a variety of surgical sites and procedures are involved. These include resection of the corrugator supercilii muscle with the placement of fat grafts in the Venetoclax site, “temporal release” procedures involving dissection of the glabellar area, transection of the zygomatical temporal branch of the trigeminal nerve, and resection of the semispinalis capitus muscle with placement of fat grafts in the area with the aim of reducing pressure on the occipital nerve.

Finally, some surgeons also perform nasal septoplasty or otherwise attempt to address possible intranasal trigger points.[17] Because the decision about which surgical procedure to perform is often made on an individual basis, it is difficult to objectively study the outcomes of surgery. When initial surgery is unsuccessful, patients may undergo additional procedures to deactivate other trigger points. Patients are often selected for surgery on the basis of improvement Ceritinib in headaches with the injection of OnabotulinumtoxinA and/or occipital nerve blockade, on the theory that response to such temporary procedures is proof of nerve impingement.[18] see more However, there is limited evidence to support the view that such surgery is effective or safe. Several randomized studies have been performed, but these have serious methodological weaknesses. Additionally, most studies in the literature have been performed by the same group of surgical proponents and published

in a single subspecialty journal.[18, 21] Despite the lack of good quality evidence about the balance of benefits and harms from surgical treatments of migraine, the procedures are becoming more common. A recent survey of members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons found that 18% of respondents had performed migraine surgery. Sixty percent of those who had not performed the surgery said they “would be interested if an appropriate patient was referred to them by a neurologist.”[19] The American Headache Society has issued a statement urging “patients, healthcare professionals and migraine treatment specialists themselves, to exercise caution in recommending or seeking such therapy.” This statement went on to say “In our view, surgery for migraine is a last-resort option and is probably not appropriate for most sufferers. To date, there are no convincing or definitive data that show its long-term value.

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