The currently available iron-chelating agents used clinically are

The currently available iron-chelating agents used clinically are deferoxamine, 1, 2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one (deferiprone, L1), and deferasirox [10]. The body lacks to excrete excessive iron and therefore the interest has been focused to develop the potent chelating agent capable of complexing with iron and promoting its

excretion. Flavonoids are phenolic compounds abundantly distributed in plants. It has been reported that most of them are effective antioxidants [11]. They Selleckchem Ribociclib were suggested to present a good scavenger to iron ions [12]. Hesperidin (3,5,7-trihydroxy flavanone-7-rhamnoglucoside) is a pharmacologically active bioflavonoid found in citrus fruits, with good free radical scavenging as well as anti-lipid peroxidation properties in biological membranes [13]. Hesperidin (Fig. 1) possesses highest reducing power,

chelating activity on Fe2+, hydrogen radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities NVP-BKM120 solubility dmso when compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and trolox [14]. Clinical and experimental data showed the antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of hesperidin [15]. However, the protective role of hesperidin against iron-induced liver and kidney injury has not been investigated. Hence we proposed to investigate whether administration of hesperidin offers protection against iron-induced liver and kidney injury. Hesperidin (PubChem CID: 10621); Ferrous sulfate (PubChem CID: 24393); 2-Thiobarbituric acid (PubChem CID: 2723628); Butylated hydroxytoluene (PubChem CID 31404); Reduced glutathione (PubChem

CID:745); 2,2’-dipyridyl (PubChem CID: 1474); Xylenol orange (PubChem CID: 73041); 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (PubChem CID:CID: 3772977); γ-glutamyl-p-nitroanilide (PubChem CID: 3772977); 5,5’-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (PubChem CID: 6254); Trichloroacetic acid (PubChem CID: 6421); Phenazine methosulfate (PubChem CID 9285); Nitroblue tetrazolium (PubChem CID: 9281); Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (PubChem CID: 439153); 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (PubChem these CID: 6) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA). The rest of the chemicals were obtained from S.D. Fine Chemicals Mumbai, India and were of analytical grade. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain (200-220 g) were used for the experiment. The animals were housed in polypropylene cages and maintained in 12-h light/12-h dark cycle, 50% humidity and 25 ± 2 °C. The animals had free access to standard pellet diet (M/S. Pranav Agro Industries Ltd., Bangalore, India) and water ad libitum. This study was approved (Vide. No. 644, 2009) by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Annamalai University and the study conducted in accordance with the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals”.

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