sbirc.ed.ac.uk), Division of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Edinburgh, a core area of the Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility (http://www.wtcrf.ed.ac.uk) and part of the SINAPSE collaboration (http://www.sinapse.as.uk). For the Scottish study, the preprocessing was performed in a parallel environment provided by the Edinburgh Compute and Data Facility. The Division
of Psychiatry of the University of Edinburgh acknowledges the financial support of National Health Service Research Scotland, through the Scottish Mental Health Research Network. For the German study, MRI and preprocessing were carried out at the Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz (http://www.unimedizin-mainz.de). Support for the German BKM120 ic50 BLZ945 order study was provided by an in-house research grant. The author A.M.M. is currently supported by the Health Foundation through a clinical scientist fellowship and by the National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression through an Independent Investigator Award. The author J.H. is currently supported by a Scottish Senior Clinical Fellowship, J.E.S. is supported by a Clinical Research Fellowship from the Wellcome Trust, and E.S. is supported by the Clinical Centre for Brain Sciences, Edinburgh. “
“Several imaging techniques are potentially useful for elucidating the disease process in patients with multiple
sclerosis (MS). In addition to conventional MRI techniques (including T2-weighted imaging), quantitative brain MRI techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and its derivative technique, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), enable MS lesions to be characterized in vivo according to quantitative values, such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). In addition, DWI and DTI offer advantages over conventional
crotamiton techniques in their ability to detect otherwise hidden abnormalities in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) , , ,  and . Moreover, DTI has been reported to reveal differences in white matter abnormality between the white matter at the periphery of plaques and distant NAWM . Non-Gaussian diffusion MRI techniques, including q-space imaging (QSI) analysis ,  and  and diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) , have emerged recently. Unlike DWI and DTI, QSI and DKI do not require the assumption of a Gaussian shape when modeling the distribution of free water molecules. QSI and DKI have yielded promising results in the evaluation of brain , ,  and  and spinal cord , , ,  and  disorders in vivo because they provide diffusion metrics, such as the root mean square displacement (RMSD), that are additional to, and different from, those of Gaussian techniques. In addition, DKI has demonstrated its usefulness in characterizing the disease process in patients with MS ,  and .