Our study suggests that current
circulating levels of PrEP drug resistance are too low to jeopardize PrEP implementation programmes. However, resistance should continue to be monitored in future PrEP studies and in the HIV-infected population as a whole, as small changes in PrEP drug resistance in ART-naïve individuals would have a large impact on our results. Successful implementation of PrEP depends on PrEP resistance as well as PrEP efficacy. “
“We examined Pirfenidone research buy clinical outcomes, patient characteristics and trends over time of non-medically supervised treatment interruptions (TIs) from a free-of-charge antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data from ART-naïve individuals ≥18 years old who initiated triple combination highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between January 2000 and June 2006 were analysed. Participants having ≥3 month gap in HAART coverage were defined as having a TI. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to examine factors associated find more with TIs and to examine factors associated with resumption of treatment. A total of 1707 participants were study eligible and 643 (37.7%) experienced TIs. TIs within 1 year of ART
initiation decreased from 29% of individuals in 2000 to 19% in 2006 (P<0.001). TIs were independently associated with a history of injection drug use (IDU) (P=0.02), higher baseline CD4 cell counts (P<0.001), hepatitis C co-infection (P<0.001) and the use of nelfinavir (NFV) (P=0.04) or zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC) (P=0.009) in the primary HAART regimen. Male Bay 11-7085 gender (P<0.001), older age (P<0.001), AIDS at baseline (P=0.008) and having a physician who had prescribed HAART to fewer patients (P=0.03) were protective against TIs. Four hundred and eighty-eight (71.9%) participants eventually restarted ART with male patients and those who developed an AIDS-defining illness prior to their TI more likely to restart therapy. Higher CD4 cell counts at the time of TI and unknown hepatitis C status were associated with a reduced likelihood of restarting ART. Treatment interruptions were associated with younger,
less ill, female and IDU participants. Most participants with interruptions eventually restarted therapy. Interruptions occurred less frequently in recent years. Improving access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is an important public health objective in all regions of the globe. Not only is HAART associated with markedly improved survival among HIV-infected individuals [1,2], but it can also contribute to reducing the number of new HIV infections at the population level [3,4]. Continued access to HAART is often limited by patient-incurred costs, especially in low- or middle-income countries  or in industrialized countries without universal health care insurance programmes . However, other factors associated with poor access or continuation on HAART have not been well studied, especially in high-income countries.