In the

same way, mice receiving 104 or 102 CFU were eutha

In the

same way, mice receiving 104 or 102 CFU were euthanized at days 3/4 or 5 postinfection, respectively. Bacterial inocula were prepared click here growing tagged strains overnight in LB at 28 °C. Cultures were centrifuged, diluted in physiological saline and inoculated to mice. Viable bacteria in the inocula were quantified by dilution and plating onto LB agar plates with appropriate antibiotics. MLN were removed daily postintraperitoneal infection and incubated for 20 min in 3 mL of HBSS containing 100 mg mL−1 of gentamicin, followed by three washes in 10 mL of HBSS without antibiotic, before single-cell suspensions were prepared using an iron mesh sieve. Then, the isolated cells were processed as described above (Expression and secretion of SopB in infected eukaryotic cells) in order to obtain a soluble and an insoluble fraction to analyze the expression and translocation, respectively. The expression and secretion of SopB was studied in vitro and in vivo using a FLAG-tagged strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. First, we analyzed the phenotype of the tagged

strains in all models of infection used throughout the experiments. As shown in Table 1, no significant differences in virulence were found between parental and tagged strains. These results are in accord with those reported earlier (Giacomodonato et al., 2007, 2009) and confirm that epitope tagging does not impair the invasiveness, colonization capacity or virulence of Salmonella. Consequently, we used our FLAG-tagged strains of Salmonella as a tool to study the in vitro and MLN0128 price in vivo expression and translocation of SopB. To investigate the capacity of the Salmonella-tagged strains to synthesize and secrete SopB, bacteria were grown under different conditions resembling early and late stages of Salmonella infection (as described in Materials and methods). Under conditions that mimic the intestinal environment Salmonella synthesized SopB (Fig. 1b, lane 1). Interestingly, this effector protein was also found associated

with bacteria cultured under second conditions that resemble the early and late intracellular environment (Fig. 1b, lanes 2 and 3), whereas SopA expression was evident only under conditions that mimic the intestinal milieu (Fig. 1a, lane 1). On the other hand, although SopB expression was evident under all conditions tested, its secretion was observed only into media that mimic the intestinal environment (Fig. 1e, lane 1). As expected for a dual effector translocated by both TTSSs, SopD was synthesized and secreted at similar levels under all conditions analyzed (Fig. 1c, lanes 1–3 and Fig. 1f, lanes 1–3). Taken together these results suggest that SopB can be synthesized not only by Salmonella located in the intestinal environment but also by intracellular bacteria. To investigate to what extent SopB is induced intracellularly, confluent HEp-2 cells were infected with Salmonella-tagged strains.

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