However, we achieved high compliance among those who were informe

However, we achieved high compliance among those who were informed of the survey’s nature, thus reducing the potential for participant self-selection to affect our findings. Our study found that the Mediterranean holiday destinations attract young people with different behavioral characteristics for different purposes and that these are reflected in the behaviors they engage in while abroad (Tables 1 and 2). Such information should

be used by authorities in both holidaymakers’ home and destination countries to implement appropriate action to protect holidaymakers’ health and well-being. Specifically, nightlife is a major attraction for young people visiting Majorca, Crete, and Cyprus, and holidays in these destinations are characterized by frequent participation in nightlife and substance use. Regular drunkenness is the norm among British visitors to Majorca and Crete and German holidaymakers in Majorca. check details Visitors to Cyprus get drunk less frequently, yet report more drug use, with almost one in five visitors of both nationalities using drugs during their holiday. For young people choosing to holiday in Portugal and Italy, weather and culture, respectively, are the largest attractions. Here, holidaymakers use nightlife and get drunk less frequently. Despite this, the highest levels of overall drug use were

reported by German visitors to Portugal. Across all samples, almost 6% of young holidaymakers reported having suffered unintentional injury during their holiday and almost 4% had been involved in violence (Table 3). Unintentional injury www.selleckchem.com/epigenetic-reader-domain.html was independently associated with being male, younger, an illicit drug user at home (but not on holiday), frequently getting drunk on holiday, and visiting Crete (Table 4). Involvement in violence was associated with being male, attracted

to the destination due to its nightlife, staying 8 to 14 days, visiting Majorca (both nationalities) or Crete (British), smoking, regularly getting drunk, and using drugs on holiday. The relationship between drug many use and violence abroad was largely not temporal; only 16.2% of drug users who reported violence identified themselves as being under the influence of drugs at the time of the incident. Links between drugs and violence are complex and include the exposure of drug users to environments that can feature violence (eg, illicit drug markets and nightclubs) and shared risk factors (eg, sensation seeking) which can make individuals vulnerable to both.8 The same is true for links between alcohol and violence.32 However, over 90% of violent incidents reported in our study occurred when individuals were under the influence of alcohol, reflecting the strong temporal links between alcohol use and violence.5 Although we cannot establish the causal role of alcohol in violent incidents reported by holidaymakers, the dose-responsive relationship between alcohol and violence suggests that alcohol would have been a major contributor to such harm.

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