Further analysis of the large-scale deletion mutants should help

Further analysis of the large-scale deletion mutants should help identify the regulatory networks that are important for cellular defense against oxidative stress. Recent developments in genetic techniques have made it possible to engineer viable microbial cells in which a substantial portion of the genome has been deleted to yield a ‘reduced genome.’Escherichia coli strains with a reduced genome were first constructed by Posfai and colleagues who deleted large K-islands that were identified by comparative genomics as recent horizontal acquisitions to the genome (Kolisnychenko et al., 2002;

Posfai et al., 2006). Their goal was to construct an improved strain that would be a better model organism and a more useful organism for genomic studies. They reduced the E. coli genome by up to 15% and found that the resulting strain

had a higher electroporation selleck chemical efficiency and a lower mutation rate than the wild-type strain. Cardinale et al. (2008) used the reduced-genome Selleckchem ABT 199 strain lacking the horizontally transferred genes and showed that the essential nusA and nusG genes encoding Rho cofactors were dispensable in this strain. They also showed that the genes repressed by Rho were prophages and other horizontally acquired genes, and suggested that Rho termination is necessary to suppress the toxic activity of foreign genes (Cardinale et al., 2008). A series of engineered strains in which the genomes were reduced by up to 29.7% were produced by combining long-range

chromosome deletions (Hashimoto et al., 2005). The engineered strains lacked the foreign genes in the large K-islands and other nonessential genes and showed impaired growth, which indicated that, although the deleted genes were not essential, they were important for cell growth. In E. coli, all essential genes have been identified and most have been characterized (Gerdes et al., 2003; Baba et al., 2006; Kato & Hashimoto, 2007). An essential gene is a gene involved in an essential process. When two genes with redundant functions are involved in an essential process, these genes are considered nonessential genes. Using a wild-type bacterial Silibinin strain and its derivatives makes it difficult to identify genes with redundant functions because it is hard to detect their phenotypes. When a large-scale chromosome deletion mutant lacks one of these genes, the other gene involved in that essential process becomes an essential gene. Large-scale chromosome deletion mutants are valuable tools for the analyses of genes with redundant functions. To understand the mechanisms of cell proliferation and survival during stationary phase, the sensitivity to oxidative stress of engineered strains with substantially reduced genomes was examined. Escherichia coli has redundant systems for countering oxidative stress (Carmel-Harel & Storz, 2000; Imlay, 2003).

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