A computerized cognitive test battery was undertaken (CogState™,

A computerized cognitive test battery was undertaken (CogState™, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia), which has previously been described in detail [6, 8] and validated in HIV-infected subjects [9]. In brief, all tasks within the battery were adaptations of standard neuropsychological and experimental psychological tests, which assessed a range of cognitive functions. This battery assessed the following domains: detection, identification, monitoring and matched learning (all assessed via speed of test); associate learning and working memory (assessed learn more via accuracy of test); and executive function (assessed via number of errors made

on testing). The battery consisted of tasks in the form of card games. Therefore, subjects

needed only to have an understanding of playing cards, thereby minimizing language and cultural differences among study subjects. Card game instructions were translated into the local language. All study participants selleck chemicals completed one full practice test prior to undertaking the study examination to obtain optimal performance at baseline [10]. Statistical analyses were conducted with sas version 9.13 (SAS, Cary, NC) and stata version 10.1 (Statacorp, College Station, TX) and analysis was conducted according to CogState™ recommendations. Reaction times were log10-transformed because of a positive skew of the distribution, and accuracy measures were transformed using arcsine-root transformation. Change scores were calculated for each subject, and these scores standardized according to the within-subject standard deviation (SD). Changes in performance for arms 2 and 3 compared with arm 1 were standardized with a pooled SD, and this was used as the outcome variable in linear regression models to calculate an overall Etomidate effect size for the difference between treatment groups. Composite scores were calculated overall and for the speed and accuracy domains based on the average of standardized scores, and composite changes from baseline scores to weeks 24 and 48 were calculated based on the average of standardized reaction time and accuracy scores. Of 30 subjects enrolled in the

study, 28 completed NC testing at baseline, week 24 and week 48 and were included in this analysis (nine, eight and 11 subjects in arms 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Two subjects who completed baseline NC testing did not attend for follow-up study visits. CD4 lymphocyte count (SD) rose over the 48-week study period from 218 (87) to 342 (145) cells/μL at baseline and week 48, respectively. Other baseline characteristics have previously been described [6]. Of interest, all subjects apart from one had undetectable plasma HIV RNA (<50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) at week 48. All statistical results described are unchanged when adjusted for the one subject with detectable plasma HIV RNA at week 48. Overall, improvements in NC function were observed by week 24 and continued to week 48 (Table 1).

In general, in the absence of previous resistance mutations, swit

In general, in the absence of previous resistance mutations, switching within class should result in maintaining virological suppression. Several RCTs have assessed switching between classes (PI to NNRTI and PI to INI) in patients who are virologically suppressed. A meta-analysis of six trials showed non-inferiority in maintenance of virological suppression when

switching from a PI (both ritonavir boosted and unboosted) to NVP compared with continuing the PI but was associated with more discontinuations due to liver toxicity [70]. Previous treatment failure on an NRTI-containing regimen has been associated with an increased Rapamycin nmr risk of virological failure when switching from a PI to an NNRTI-based regimen [71]. A recent cohort analysis

showed similar rates of virological failure at 12 months in patients switching from a first-line PI/r to either EFV or NVP compared with continuing on the PI/r [72]. If switching to NVP, consideration should be given to BMS-354825 nmr the risk of hypersensitivity reactions and hepatotoxicity. Similar rates have been reported in virologically suppressed compared with ART-naïve patients stratified for CD4 cell count and gender [73, 74]. For patients without previous NRTI or NNRTI resistance mutations switching from a PI/r to any of the current licensed NNRTIs is likely to maintain virological efficacy and choice of NNRTI will depend on side effect profile, tolerability and patient preference. Switching from a PI/r to the INI, RAL, in virologically suppressed patients has been evaluated in three RCTs. Two studies have shown that previous history of NRTI resistance mutations increases the risk of subsequent virological failure on switching compared with continuing on a PI/r [75, 76]. This association mTOR inhibitor was not seen in a third trial [77]. However, it is not surprising that switching from an ARV with a high genetic barrier to one with a low genetic barrier to resistance may potentially increase the risk of virological failure if the activity of the NRTI backbone has

been compromised by previous NRTI resistance. There are limited data on switching from an NNRTI to an alternative third agent in virologically suppressed patients; however, consideration must be given to previous treatment history and potential pharmacokinetic interactions. The latter is discussed in more detail in Section 6.2.4 (Switching therapy: pharmacological considerations). We recommend continuing standard combination ART as the maintenance strategy in virologically suppressed patients (1C). (There are insufficient data to recommend PI/r monotherapy in this clinical situation.) Number of patients on PI/r monotherapy as ART maintenance strategy in virologically suppressed patients and record of rationale. For the assessment and evaluation of evidence, GRADE tables were constructed (Appendix 3).

There were several important limitations in this study Awareness

There were several important limitations in this study. Awareness of PREP among HIM participants was not ascertained, and thus it was not possible to assess the relationship between PREP knowledge and willingness to participate in PREP trials. The question on willingness to participate in trials using ARVs to prevent HIV infection potentially included men’s attitudes to PREP and/or NPEP trials. MS-275 supplier However, as the intervention is

the same (oral antiviral therapy), it is feasible that men’s attitudes towards participation in PREP and NPEP trials would be similar. This study demonstrates that Australian gay men have had little experience with PREP use and that most are unaware of rectal microbicides. About half would be willing to consider participation in a trial of ARV therapy as prevention, and about one-quarter would consider participation in a trial of rectal microbicides. With its concentrated HIV epidemic, Australia is a potential site to trial such biomedical HIV prevention technologies. Extensive community education on these technologies,

in particular rectal microbicides, and any potential role they might play in HIV prevention, would be required before PREP or rectal microbicides could be trialled in populations of gay Australian men. The authors thank all the participants, the dedicated HIM study team and the participating doctors and clinics. The National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research and the National Centre in HIV Social Research are funded by the Australian Government Department of Health http://www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-203580.html and Ageing. The Health in Men Cohort study was funded much by the National Institutes of Health, a component of the US Department of Health and Human Services (NIH/NIAID/DAIDS: HVDDT Award N01-AI-05395), the National Health and Medical Research Council in Australia (Project grant no. 400944), the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing (Canberra) and the New South Wales Health Department (Sydney). IMP is supported by a National

Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Public Health Postgraduate Scholarship. The authors have no conflict of interest. “
“Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has emerged as an important health problem in the era of effective HIV treatment. However, very few data exist on the health status and disease burden of HIV/HCV-coinfected Canadians. HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were enrolled prospectively in a multicentre cohort from 16 centres across Canada between 2003 and 2010 and followed every 6 months. We determined rates of a first liver fibrosis or endstage liver disease (ESLD) event and all-cause mortality since cohort enrolment and calculated standardized mortality ratios compared with the general Canadian population. A total of 955 participants were enrolled in the study and followed for a median of 1.4 (interquartile range 0.5–2.3) years. Most were male (73%) with a median age of 44.

We further elucidated nucleotide sequences of the 5′-upstream and

We further elucidated nucleotide sequences of the 5′-upstream and 3′-downstream flanking regions using the rapid amplification of cDNA end methods. Finally, the full-length cDNA tclip (GenBank accession no. AB191466) was isolated. The sequence consists of 1303 nucleotides and a poly(A) tail, and contains an ORF starting with an ATG codon and extending as far as a TAA stop codon at position

1084. The ORF encodes 361 amino acids (Fig. 2). A sequence comparison using blastp indicated that tclip shows GSK J4 ic50 high similarity to other fungal peroxidases such as LiP and VP, showing 63% similarity to P. chrysosporium LiP [LiPB (isozyme H2) and LiPG (isozyme H8); 50% identity] and 63% similarity to VP from P. eryngii (VPL1 and VPS1; 51% identity). In order to identify the T. cervina

LiP gene, we analyzed the tryptic peptide-mass fingerprinting of the native T. cervina LiP isolated from T. cervina and the recombinant protein heterologously expressed from the isolated cDNA. As shown in Fig. 2, the native and recombinant proteins showed identical fingerprinting patterns, with molecular ion peaks at m/z 804.5, 1036.4, 1052.5, 1404.9, and 1605.1. The peptide fragments observed in the tryptic peptide-mass fingerprinting analysis appeared to be the theoretical oligopeptides Leu149–Arg155 (804.0), Leu256–Arg264 Ku-0059436 clinical trial Dipeptidyl peptidase (1036.2), Val318–Lys328 (1052.2), Leu256–Arg267 (1404.9), and Leu67–Lys81 (1604.8). ESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed that each fragment was derived from the obtained sequences (data not shown). These results indicate that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of T. cervina LiP were correctly identified. Figure 1 shows the pair-wise alignment of T. cervina LiP amino acid sequences (putative mature sequence) and the well-characterized P. chrysosporium LiP. The positions and sizes

of putative 10 helices were conserved in both LiP sequences, suggesting that T. cervina LiP and P. chrysosporium LiP share a similar overall structure (Piontek et al., 1993; Poulos et al., 1994). A putative N-linked glycosylation site was found at Asn138–Gln141 (Fig. 1). The vital amino acid residues at the heme cavity, such as the distal Arg43, Phe46, and His47, the proximal His175, and Asp236 H-bonded to the proximal His, were all conserved (Fig. 1). Several amino acids appear to be essential for calcium-binding in T. cervina LiP; Asp48, Gly66, Asp68, and Ser70 on the distal side, and Ser176, Asp193, Thr195, and Asp200 on the proximal side (Poulos et al., 1994). The proximal Ile199 of P. chrysosporium LiP is substituted to Val198 in T. cervina LiP. However, Val198 would also contribute toward calcium binding because Val and Ile share similar physicochemical characteristics.

Based on these assumptions, two submodels were constructed that a

Based on these assumptions, two submodels were constructed that are mathematically connected to form the combined ‘progression rate distribution’. The HIV incidence curve was then reconstructed by combining two back-projection estimated HIV incidence curves from AIDS diagnostic data (up to 1994, prior to which effective antiretroviral treatment was not available) and HIV diagnostic data using the combined progression rate distribution. The methodology also used the back-calculated HIV incidence to forecast what the trend of AIDS diagnoses over the years would have been in the absence of treatments. This forecast can be compared with the actual trend of AIDS

diagnoses from surveillance data. Details of this methodology are given in the Appendix A. User-friendly software for this methodology, written in the R language, Selleck Cabozantinib together with other technical and methodological documents, is available upon request ([email protected]). Following a long-term decline, RAD001 the annual number of new HIV diagnoses has gradually increased recently, from 763 cases in 2000 to 998

in 2006. Among the cases of newly diagnosed HIV infection, an increasing number were in people who had acquired HIV infection within the previous year. Summary figures suggest that, by the end of 2006, 26 267 diagnoses of HIV infection, 10 125 diagnoses of AIDS and 6723 deaths following AIDS occurred in Australia [5]. Table 1 shows the distribution of HIV diagnoses for three exposure categories. Estimated HIV incidence curves and their pointwise 95% confidence intervals (CIs), which were calculated by bootstrap [7], are plotted Histamine H2 receptor for the three main routes of transmission (MSM, IDU and heterosexual acquired – for both men and women) in Fig. 1a–d. Model-predicted HIV and AIDS diagnoses (in the absence of therapies) along with their observed counts are also presented in Figs 2a–d and 3a–d, respectively. In recent years there has been a noticeable increase in the number of HIV diagnoses in MSM (Fig. 2a). The back-projection analyses suggest a peak HIV incidence in MSM of over 2000 new infections per year in the early 1980s, followed by

a rapid decline to a low of a little under 500 new infections per year in the early 1990s (Fig. 1a). It is estimated that the incidence of HIV infection then increased gradually through the early 2000s, to ∼750 new HIV infections in 2006. This is in broad agreement with previous reports and conventional back-projection estimates [8]. Our results also show that, to the end of 2006, a total of 19 689 men were infected with HIV through male homosexual sex, of whom 13% (95% CI 12%, 14%) are estimated not to have been diagnosed with HIV infection (Table 2). In 1997–2006, approximately 4% of HIV diagnoses in Australia were in people who reported a history of IDU (Annual Surveillance Report, 2007). The prevalence of HIV infection among people attending needle and syringe programmes remained low (∼1% in 2002–2006).

A prebiotic is a nondigestible food ingredient that beneficially

A prebiotic is a nondigestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, thus improving the host health (Gibson & Roberfroid, 1995). The combination of suitable probiotics

and prebiotics enhances the survival and activity of the organism. The combination of prebiotic and probiotic has synergistic effects because in addition to promoting the growth of existing strains of this website beneficial bacteria in the colon, synbiotics also act to improve the survival, implantation, and growth of newly added probiotic strains. The synbiotic concept has been widely used by European dairy drink and yoghurt manufacturers such as Aktifit (Emmi, Switzerland), Proghurt (Ja Naturlich Naturprodukte, Austria), Vifit (Belgium, UK), and Fysiq (the Netherlands; Niness, 1999). The combination of Bifidobacterium and oligofructose was reported to synergistically improve colon carcinogenesis in rats compared to when both were given individually selleck inhibitor (Gallaher

& Khil, 1999). Another study reported that a synbiotic containing Pediococcus pentoseceus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus paracasei, and L. plantarum with four fermentable fibers namely β-glucan, inulin, pectin, and resistant starch reduced the occurrence of postoperation infections from 48% to 13% in 66 liver transplant patients (Rayes et al., 2005). Most of the claims on benefits of different synbiotics are on general health (Gibson & Roberfroid, 1995). There have yet been any clinical trials on suitable combinations of synbiotics that specifically target reduction in serum cholesterol level in animals and humans. Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli are the most frequent target organisms for prebiotics. Although there is growing interesting development of new functional foods

with synbiotics, the concept of synbiotics has been studied to a limited extent and needs further investigations. Only a few human studies have been carried out on the effectiveness of synbiotics (Morelli et al., 2003). There are evidences from well-conducted Progesterone clinical trials of beneficial health effects from probiotics in a range of clinical conditions. The concept of ‘synbiotics’ has recently been proposed to characterize health-enhancing food and supplements used as functional food ingredients in humans, and with the advent of the functional food concept, it is clear that there is an important niche for these probiotic-based approaches. Although from the ongoing research, more of promising potential health effects of probiotics are being observed, more standardized and verifiable clinical studies are needed to demonstrate the safety, efficacy, and limitations of a putative probiotic, to determine effects on the immune system in healthy and diseased individuals and effects of long-term consumption, and to resolve whether it is superior to existing therapies.

coli DH5α, which was suggested by the fact that E coli DH5α by i

coli DH5α, which was suggested by the fact that E. coli DH5α by itself displayed very high resistance to such antimicrobial drugs as ethidium bromide (Table 1). Therefore, it would be more proper that the drug resistance of PsmrAB should be tested in the MDR-type transporter deficient E. coli selleckchem KAM3, Based on our current data, we proposed that PsmrAB, as the homolog of YvdSR pair, should function mainly as a novel two-component Na+/H+ antiporter. We are so grateful to Dr Terry A. Krulwich (Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine of the City University, New York) for the kind gift of E. coli strain KNabc. This manuscript was supported by National

Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 30960009 and 31000055), Key Project of Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars of Heilongjiang Province of China (Grant No. 1251HZ001), Special Financial Grant from China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 201104408), Doctor Start-up Fund of Northeast Agricultural University (Grant

No. 2009RC23) and Key Laboratory Open Fund of Soybean Biology of Ministry of Education (Grant No. SB11A05). J.J., L.W. and H.Z. contributed equally to this work. “
“Candida yeasts colonize the human oral cavity as commensals or opportunistic pathogens. They may be isolated from water circulating in dental unit waterlines mixed with traces of saliva mainly because of the dysfunction of antiretraction valves. This study deals with the growth find more http://www.selleck.co.jp/products/cobimetinib-gdc-0973-rg7420.html ability of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis in tap

water with saliva (0–20% v/v). Results show that C. glabrata is the most susceptible species in tap water. Furthermore, saliva promotes both survival and proliferation of the three studied Candida species in tap water. Candida species are commonly regarded as normal constituents of the mucocutaneous microbial communities in healthy humans and are considered important opportunistic fungal pathogens (Odds, 1988; Ghannoum et al., 2010). Changes in the composition of microbiota may enhance their pathogenicity, causing superficial or systemic infections, depending on the immune status of the patient (Hube, 2004). The major source of organisms isolated from dental unit waterlines (DUWL) biofilm is the incoming mains water. Contamination of DUWL with oral microorganisms can also result from the absence or, more likely a dysfunction, of antiretraction valves that normally limit re-aspiration of fluid from the oral cavity (Bagga et al., 1984; Kumar et al., 2010). These valves require regular maintenance and replacement because they are subject to clogging due to biofilm deposition and fatigue (Williams et al., 1996). Because of such contamination, DUWL systems often deliver water to patients with microbial levels exceeding those considered safe for drinking water (Walker et al., 2000; Barben et al.

coli DH5α, which was suggested by the fact that E coli DH5α by i

coli DH5α, which was suggested by the fact that E. coli DH5α by itself displayed very high resistance to such antimicrobial drugs as ethidium bromide (Table 1). Therefore, it would be more proper that the drug resistance of PsmrAB should be tested in the MDR-type transporter deficient E. coli Sotrastaurin price KAM3, Based on our current data, we proposed that PsmrAB, as the homolog of YvdSR pair, should function mainly as a novel two-component Na+/H+ antiporter. We are so grateful to Dr Terry A. Krulwich (Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine of the City University, New York) for the kind gift of E. coli strain KNabc. This manuscript was supported by National

Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 30960009 and 31000055), Key Project of Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars of Heilongjiang Province of China (Grant No. 1251HZ001), Special Financial Grant from China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 201104408), Doctor Start-up Fund of Northeast Agricultural University (Grant

No. 2009RC23) and Key Laboratory Open Fund of Soybean Biology of Ministry of Education (Grant No. SB11A05). J.J., L.W. and H.Z. contributed equally to this work. “
“Candida yeasts colonize the human oral cavity as commensals or opportunistic pathogens. They may be isolated from water circulating in dental unit waterlines mixed with traces of saliva mainly because of the dysfunction of antiretraction valves. This study deals with the growth Selleck HSP inhibitor Rolziracetam ability of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis in tap

water with saliva (0–20% v/v). Results show that C. glabrata is the most susceptible species in tap water. Furthermore, saliva promotes both survival and proliferation of the three studied Candida species in tap water. Candida species are commonly regarded as normal constituents of the mucocutaneous microbial communities in healthy humans and are considered important opportunistic fungal pathogens (Odds, 1988; Ghannoum et al., 2010). Changes in the composition of microbiota may enhance their pathogenicity, causing superficial or systemic infections, depending on the immune status of the patient (Hube, 2004). The major source of organisms isolated from dental unit waterlines (DUWL) biofilm is the incoming mains water. Contamination of DUWL with oral microorganisms can also result from the absence or, more likely a dysfunction, of antiretraction valves that normally limit re-aspiration of fluid from the oral cavity (Bagga et al., 1984; Kumar et al., 2010). These valves require regular maintenance and replacement because they are subject to clogging due to biofilm deposition and fatigue (Williams et al., 1996). Because of such contamination, DUWL systems often deliver water to patients with microbial levels exceeding those considered safe for drinking water (Walker et al., 2000; Barben et al.

Symptoms, in all patients, were abdominal pain in the upper right

Symptoms, in all patients, were abdominal pain in the upper right or left quadrant. Four patients also

had extrahepatic manifestations of CE, including pleural effusion (N = 2), lung involvement (N = 1), and dilated biliary ducts in the affected liver lobe (N = 1). The result of the classification of the cysts based on the initial sonography descriptions and the archived images is displayed in Table 2. Serology results were available for 25 of 26 patients, Table 2. Imaging performed was CT in 1 patient, US in 10 patients, and combined US and CT in 15 patients. Nine patients underwent PAIR as a first choice treatment. The cysts were staged as: CE1 (N = 1), CE2 (N = 2), CE3A (N = 4), CE3B (N = 3). Five patients had no complications associated with the procedure or recurrence of cysts [stages CE1 (N = 1), CE2 (N = 1), CE3A (N = 3)], two had recurrence of cysts (stages CE3A, CE3B), and two had complications related Ivacaftor to BIBW2992 clinical trial the procedure [subcutaneous abscess (stage CE2) and intraperitoneal spillage resulting in acute surgery (stage CE3B)], Table 2. Three patients underwent PAIR secondary to surgery; of these, two had no complications resulting

from the procedure or recurrence of cysts (stage CE1 and CE2), and one had recurrence of the cyst (stage CE2). Thus, 7 of 12 PAIR treatments were successful (58%), ie, disappearance of the cyst(s) or, if still present, US classification as inactive. Nine patients underwent surgery as a first choice treatment due to communication of the cyst with the biliary system or anatomical location of the cyst preventing access by PAIR (location behind stomach). In one patient, Protein kinase N1 surgery was performed secondary to PAIR, due to spillage of cyst material to the peritoneal cavity during PAIR. Of the 10 patients who underwent surgery, 2 had recurrence of cysts due to non-radical surgery (N = 2) and spillage

to the peritoneal cavity (N = 1). Thus surgery was successful in 7 of 10 patients (70%) using the same criteria as for PAIR. The difference in success rates for PAIR and surgery was not statistically significant (p = 0.67). Seven patients received medical treatment as their only treatment. Their cysts were at stages CE1 (one patient lost to follow-up), CE4 (N = 3), and CE5 (N = 3), respectively. Treatment was initiated due to persistent symptoms. All patients, except one (Patient 18), received pharmacological treatment with albendazole in a dose of 400 mg twice daily if the drug was well tolerated. However, the cumulative duration of the medical treatment was not standardized and varied between 6 weeks and 15 months, depending on response to treatment. In all patients undergoing PAIR or surgery, albendazole was initiated 2 weeks before the procedure and continued for 4 weeks post-procedure. Discontinuation was prompted by consolidation of cyst on imaging.

Moreover, it is also well known that the suppression

Moreover, it is also well known that the suppression Selleck PI3K inhibitor of phagocytic function of macrophage occurs by binding of adenosine to A2 receptors (Bours et al., 2006; Haskóet al., 2008; Kumar & Sharma, 2009). Both adenosine receptor types A2A and A2B are expressed in neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and T lymphocytes, and its EC50 for adenosine varies at 0.56–0.95 and 16.2–64.1 μM, respectively (Bours et al., 2006). Using adenosine

at the same range, at micromolar concentrations, we observed an inhibition of 50% in the percentage of infected macrophages (Fig. 6a and b). Although 5′-AMP, at the same concentration, did not have an effect in the interaction, 1 mM of 5′-AMP presented similar results to that observed with 100 μM of adenosine. This fact could be explained by the action of C. parapsilosis ecto-5′-nucleotidase activity in generating free adenosine to the medium. At 100 μM on of 5′-AMP, the rate of adenosine released could not achieve the effective concentration of free adenosine necessary to limit macrophage function, whereas at a higher concentration of 5′-AMP, the rate of extracellular adenosine could be more expressive. However, the presence of an ecto-5′-nucleotidase

activity on the external surface of macrophages Akt inhibitor (Edelson & Cohn, 1976a, b), able to hydrolyze 5′-AMP, could indicate that during the interaction assays, macrophages could be also responsible for adenosine generation contributing to reduction in the number of infected macrophages. Recently, our laboratory characterized ecto-ATPase activity on C. parapsilosis. The sequential dephosphorylation of ATP to adenosine was demonstrated by reverse-phase HPLC experiments, suggesting the presence of different enzymatic activities (ecto-ATPase, ecto-ADPase and ecto-5′-nucleotidase) on the surface of C. parapsilosis almost (Kiffer-Moreira et al., 2010). Ecto-ATPase was also associated with in vitro infectious processes because pretreatment with ATPase inhibitors led to a decrease of C. parapsilosis adhesion to host cells (Kiffer-Moreira et al., 2010). Colonization and infection with C.

parapsilosis are dependent upon the ability of the fungus to adhere to host cells and tissues, particularly mucosal surfaces (Trofa et al., 2008). The specific functions of ecto-ATPases and ecto-5′-nucleotidases are not fully known, but it has been demonstrated that they participate in many relevant biological processes (Zimmermann, 2000; Meyer-Fernandes, 2002). In C. parapsilosis, both enzymes play a role in the control of extracellular nucleotide concentrations and could have a role in limiting inflammation and immune responses from the host, favoring the establishment of infectious processes. The involvement of ecto-5′-nucleotidases and free adenosines during infections has been described for several microorganisms including protozoa (de Almeida Marques-da-Silva et al., 2008), bacteria (Thammavongsa et al.