[26–29,35,42,47,58] In addition, when error rates are determined

[26–29,35,42,47,58] In addition, when error rates are determined solely by recording pharmacists’ prescription interventions, the lack of access to patients’ medical histories at the time of data collection may become a barrier to adequate evaluation of the

safety and quality of prescribing. Review of patient medical or clinical notes in general practices is perceived as a rigorous method for collecting prescribing error data.[106] This is reflected in this review as the studies, which included an element of case note reviews reported consistently higher rates of errors even across countries when compared with the use of incident reports and review of pharmacists’ interventions (Table 2). However, notable issues around patient confidentiality, informed consent and ethical provisions preclude access to patient medical records and prolong study duration. The gold standard is the use of a mix of methods Enzalutamide concentration for data collection,[106] as a study showed no overlap when five methods were used.[109] Studies, which used a mix of methods to evaluate the safety and quality of the medication system provided pertinent information such as causes of prescribing errors, clinical significance of errors, patient harm and resultant hospital admission.[19,20,44,48] Dispensing error rates were consistently low across countries.

A UK study where researchers directly observed dispensed items found higher rates than those studies where incident reporting and review of Lumacaftor ‘near misses’ were used, emphasising the issue of under-reporting. The additional checks incorporated in the dispensing process impact accuracy. On another hand, the

potential for detecting dispensing errors by patients is low when compared with the detection of prescribing errors by pharmacists and other healthcare professionals. It can be difficult to compare error rates when they are expressed in varying units: as percentage of prescriptions or items,[12,19,22,33,34] packs/doses prescribed, dispensed or administered,[40,42] multiples of items or packs,[35,46] opportunities for errors,[20] total number of patients recruited to the study[43] and in patient or person years.[24,41] The use of varying denominators can also lead to variation in reported percentages. Based on the large volumes of prescription items used in primary care, error rates expressed as a percentage of Sclareol total prescriptions or items will make easier interpretation. It is interesting to note that when comparable denominators were used, there is much consistency in prescribing error rates across countries: Bahrain: 7.7%[34]; UK 7.5% and 5%[19,55]; USA 7.6% and 11%[12,52]; India 6.1% items[51] and Ireland 6.2% items.[54] Error-prevention strategies help to improve patient health outcomes and reduce healthcare costs associated with drug-related harm.[110] During the last decade, strategies to prevent error occurrence have been directed at secondary care.

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