We would like to thank Maria Leite Eduardo for technical assistance. This work was supported by grants from FAPERJ, CAPES, MCT-PRONEX, CNPQ and PROPPI-UFF. “
“Shaken baby syndrome, currently termed abusive head trauma,1 was first described in 1974 in regard to the physical abuse of children2 and is characterized by findings such as the perimacular retinal fold.3
Controversy now exists regarding the primary mechanism responsible for the ocular findings found in abusive head trauma, despite the overwhelming evidence in support of the theory of acceleration–deceleration forces solely induced by vigorous shaking.4 Other hypotheses attribute optic nerve sheath and retinal bleeding to a rise in intracranial pressure from myriad
other causes, including learn more intracranial hemorrhage5 or pressure increases elsewhere in the circulation,6 such as the abdomen and thorax. These other postulations, however, do not fully consider ocular anatomy, as intense cardiopulmonary resuscitation with presumably high intrathoracic pressures in a relatively large study failed to generate retinal hemorrhages in pediatric patients Sirolimus price with a normal coagulation profile and platelet count.7 Other viewpoints suggest that the combination of hypoxia, brain swelling, and raised central venous pressure may cause extravasation into the subdural space owing to immaturity rather than direct venous rupture required by considerable force.8 This complexity of multiple contributing inflammatory factors induced by shaking, then, may account for the subdural bleeding within the brain rather than mechanical forces on the bridging veins alone. It was found that shaking forces, when isolated, are insufficient to cause such
documented damage and instead require angular acceleration from impact, albeit in the clinical vacuum of a biomechanical model.9 However, ocular anatomy and its related biomechanics are not addressed. An extra layer of complexity must be considered given the unique anatomy of the vitreous and retinal tissues. Perimacular folds, a well-established finding associated with abusive head trauma, are described as white retinal ridges surrounding the macula and have long been attributed to the vitreous traction on the neurosensory retina during shaking episodes.10 ADP ribosylation factor Although they are commonly found in cases of abusive head trauma, there have been 3 documented cases of this retinal ridge clinically that were all attributable to severe crush injury, only 1 of which has histopathologic evidence.11, 12 and 13 However, to our knowledge, there are no reports of perimacular ridge formation in instances of minimal trauma or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Therefore, it is our suspicion that a sufficient amount of acceleration–deceleration forces in conjunction with vitreous traction is required to produce these findings.